• Ahmed Aljumaili Department of Mechanical Engineering, Altinbas University, Istanbul 34217, Turkey Author
  • Yaser Alaiwi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Altinbas University, Istanbul 34217, Turkey Author
  • Zainab Al-Khafaji Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia Author



Cooling System, Heat dissipation, Mono-Polycrystalline, Paraffin wax, Photovoltaic modules


This research aims to improve thermal performance and compare the performance of two common crystalline PV panel types (Mono and poly). Modules with a back-cooling system were designed and numerically analyzed with SolidWorks and ANSYS-Fluent-2021-R2 for the simulation under Baghdad weather at noon. The cooling system used consists of a phase-change material, paraffin wax (RT55), with a thickness of 5 cm and a heatsink with 33 fins with heights of 10, 20, and 30 mm and thicknesses of 2, 4, and 6 mm. to select the best height of the wax 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 cm examined. The result showed that for polycrystals, the panel temperature was reduced by 8.4°C using PCM and 11.9°C using PCM-fins. Also, output power was enhanced to 200.6 W by 10.2 W, and efficiency improved by 5%. Similarly, using PCM and PCM-fins lowered the temperature of the monocrystalline by 8.3 and 12.5°C, respectively. Therefore, the output power is enhanced to 202.4 W by 10.7 W and improves the electrical efficiency by 5.2%. The results of the study showed that mono had better performance than poly. This result is acceptable and is in good agreement with previous studies.


Hamza JE, Al-Kayiem HH, Lemma TA. Experimental investigation of the separation performance of oil/water mixture by compact conical axial hydrocyclone. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress 2020;17:100358.

Almansory A, Al-Anbarri K. Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Based On An Artificial Intelligence Technique. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development 2023;27:725–41.

Hussein SAA, Nima MA. Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Semicircular Solar Updraft Tower System Employing Porous Copper Metal Foam. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development 2023;27:596–614.

Radhi SS, Al-khafaji ZS, Falah MW. Sustainable heating system by infrared radiators 2022;4:42–52.

Agyekum EB, Velkin VI. Optimization and techno-economic assessment of concentrated solar power (CSP) in South-Western Africa: A case study on Ghana. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 2020;40:100763.

Agyekum EB, Amjad F, Mohsin M, Ansah MNS. A bird’s eye view of Ghana’s renewable energy sector environment: a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making approach. Utilities Policy 2021;70:101219.

Adebayo TS, Agboola MO, Rjoub H, Adeshola I, Agyekum EB, Kumar NM. Linking economic growth, urbanization, and environmental degradation in China: what is the role of hydroelectricity consumption? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021;18:6975.

Al-Khafaji ZS, Al-Naely HK, Al-Najar AE. A review applying industrial waste materials in stabilisation of soft soil. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering 2018;18:16–23.

Hussain AJ, Al-Khafaji ZS. Reduction of environmental pollution and improving the (Mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics) of contaminated clay soil by using of recycled oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems 2020;12:1276–86.

Dr. Abdullah Jabar Hussain AZSA-K. The Fields of Applying the Recycled and Used Oils by the Internal Combustion Engines for Purposes of Protecting the Environment against Pollutions. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems 2020;12:666–70.

Marshdi QSR, Hussien SA, Mareai BM, Al-Khafaji ZS, Shubbar AA. Applying of No-fines concretes as a porous concrete in different construction application. Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences 2021;9:999–1012.

Sattar S, Alaiwi Y, Radhi NS, Al-khafaji Z. Numerical Simulation for Effect of Composite Coating ( TiO2 + SiO2 ) Thickness on Steam Turbine Blades Thermal and Stress Distribution. Academic Journal Of Manufacturing Engineering 2023;21.

Hamza SA, Radhi NS. Composite Coating Using (Hap-Nano Silver) By Macro Arc Oxidation Procedures Was Used To Study the in-Vivo Properties of Titanium Substrate. Academic Journal of Manufacturing Engineering 2023;21:65–71.

Homadi A, Hall T, Whitman L. Study a novel hybrid system for cooling solar panels and generate power. Applied Thermal Engineering 2020;179:115503.

Alwan NT, Shcheklein SE, Ali OM. Experimental investigation of modified solar still integrated with solar collector. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 2020;19:100614.

Alwan NT, Shcheklein SE, Ali OM. Experimental analysis of thermal performance for flat plate solar water collector in the climate conditions of Yekaterinburg, Russia. Materials Today: Proceedings 2021;42:2076–83.

Ahmad FF, Ghenai C, Hamid AK, Rejeb O, Bettayeb M. Performance enhancement and infra-red (IR) thermography of solar photovoltaic panel using back cooling from the waste air of building centralized air conditioning system. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 2021;24:100840.

Agbo EP, Edet CO, Magu TO, Njok AO, Ekpo CM, Louis H. Solar energy: A panacea for the electricity generation crisis in Nigeria. Heliyon 2021;7.

Sudhakar P, Santosh R, Asthalakshmi B, Kumaresan G, Velraj R. Performance augmentation of solar photovoltaic panel through PCM integrated natural water circulation cooling technique. Renewable Energy 2021;172:1433–48.

Karam EH, Mohammed YA, Kadhim NN. Controlling water level by using modified model free adaptive controller. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD) 2023;27.

Sudhakar P, Kumaresan G, Velraj R. Experimental analysis of solar photovoltaic unit integrated with free cool thermal energy storage system. Solar Energy 2017;158:837–44.

Royo P, Ferreira VJ, López-Sabirón AM, Ferreira G. Hybrid diagnosis to characterise the energy and environmental enhancement of photovoltaic modules using smart materials. Energy 2016;101:174–89.

Shubbar A, Nasr M, Falah M, Al-Khafaji Z. Towards net zero carbon economy: Improving the sustainability of existing industrial infrastructures in the UK. Energies 2021;14:5896.

Rahman NMA, Haw LC, Fazlizan A. A literature review of naturally ventilated public hospital wards in tropical climate countries for thermal comfort and energy saving improvements. Energies 2021;14:435.

Suresh AK, Khurana S, Nandan G, Dwivedi G, Kumar S. Role on nanofluids in cooling solar photovoltaic cell to enhance overall efficiency. Materials Today: Proceedings 2018;5:20614–20.

Ghadiri M, Sardarabadi M, Pasandideh-fard M, Moghadam AJ. Experimental investigation of a PVT system performance using nano ferrofluids. Energy Conversion and Management 2015;103:468–76.

Sato D, Yamada N. Review of photovoltaic module cooling methods and performance evaluation of the radiative cooling method. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2019;104:151–66.

Hamzat AK, Sahin AZ, Omisanya MI, Alhems LM. Advances in PV and PVT cooling technologies: A review. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 2021;47:101360.

Trahan J. A technical and economic comparative analysis of sensible and latent heat packed bed storage systems for concentrating solar thermal power plants. University of South Florida; 2015.

Al-khafaji ZS, Radhi NS, Mohson SA. Preparation and modelling of composite materials (polyester-alumina) as implant in human body. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 2018;9.

Al-Khafaji ZS, Radhi SS, Mahdi MM, Radhi NS, Mareai BM. Measuring radiation in space with bubble detectors and the effect of radiation on health system of human body. AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2839, AIP Publishing; 2023.

Hamdan M, Shehadeh M, Al Aboushi A, Hamdan A, Abdelhafez E. Photovoltaic Cooling Using Phase Change Material. Jordan Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2018;12.

Arıcı M, Bilgin F, Nižetić S, Papadopoulos AM. Phase change material based cooling of photovoltaic panel: A simplified numerical model for the optimization of the phase change material layer and general economic evaluation. Journal of Cleaner Production 2018;189:738–45.

Rajput UJ, Yang J. Comparison of heat sink and water type PV/T collector for polycrystalline photovoltaic panel cooling. Renewable Energy 2018;116:479–91.

Rustemli S, Dincer F. Modeling of photovoltaic panel and examining effects of temperature in Matlab/Simulink. Elektronika Ir Elektrotechnika 2011;3:35–40.

Potscavage WJ, Sharma A, Kippelen B. Critical interfaces in organic solar cells and their influence on the open-circuit voltage. Accounts of Chemical Research 2009;42:1758–67.

Sun Z, Yang Z. Improved maximum power point tracking algorithm with cuk converter for PV systems. The Journal of Engineering 2017;2017:1676–81.

Dominguez J. Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems Second Edition. 2014.

Hamzah H, Toifur M, Ishafit I. Determination of Fill Factor and Efficiency in Solar Cell Type (99 × 69) mm2 with Arduino Uno R3 Based Drive assisted by Logger Pro 3.14.1. Indonesian Review of Physics 2019;2:53.

Kant K, Shukla A, Sharma A, Biwole PH. Heat transfer studies of photovoltaic panel coupled with phase change material. Solar Energy 2016;140:151–61.

Xu Z, Kleinstreuer C. Concentration photovoltaic-thermal energy co-generation system using nanofluids for cooling and heating. Energy Conversion and Management 2014;87:504–12.

Skoplaki E, Palyvos JA. On the temperature dependence of photovoltaic module electrical performance : A review of efficiency / power correlations. Solar Energy 2009;83:614–24.

Zhou J, Yi Q, Wang Y, Ye Z. ScienceDirect Temperature distribution of photovoltaic module based on finite element simulation. SOLAR ENERGY 2015;111:97–103.

Ahmed M, Radwan A. Performance evaluation of new modified low-concentrator polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic/thermal systems. Energy Conversion and Management 2017;149:593–607.

Rejeb O, Sardarabadi M, Ménézo C, Passandideh-Fard M, Dhaou MH, Jemni A. Numerical and model validation of uncovered nanofluid sheet and tube type photovoltaic thermal solar system. Energy Conversion and Management 2016;110:367–77.

Naumenko K, Eremeyev VA. A layer-wise theory for laminated glass and photovoltaic panels. Composite Structures 2014;112:283–91.

Emam M, Ahmed M. Cooling concentrator photovoltaic systems using various configurations of phase-change material heat sinks. Energy Conversion and Management 2018;158:298–314.

Hudișteanu SV, Țurcanu FE, Cherecheș NC, Popovici CG, Verdeș M, Ancaș DA, et al. Effect of Wind Direction and Velocity on PV Panels Cooling with Perforated Heat Sinks. Applied Sciences (Switzerland) 2022;12.

Sarhaddi F, Farahat S, Ajam H, Behzadmehr A, Mahdavi Adeli M. An improved thermal and electrical model for a solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collector. Applied Energy 2010;87:2328–39.

Zainal Arifi, Suyitno Suyitno , Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Wibawa Endra Juwana MRAP and ARP. The Effect of Heat Sink Properties on Solar Cell Cooling Systems. Applied Sciences 2020;10.

Righetti G, Doretti L, Zilio C, Longo GA, Mancin S. Experimental investigation of phase change of medium/high temperature paraffin wax embedded in 3D periodic structure. International Journal of Thermofluids 2020;5–6:100035.

Shekoofa A, Emam Y, Pessarakli M. Effect of partial defoliation after silking stage on yield components of three grain maize hybrids under semi-arid conditions. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 2012;58:777–88.

Dmitruk A, Naplocha K, Grzȩda J, Kaczmar JW. Aluminum inserts for enhancing heat transfer in PCM accumulator. Materials 2020;13.

Ranabhat K, Patrikeev L, Revina AA evna, Andrianov K, Lapshinsky V, Sofronova E. An introduction to solar cell technology. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 2016;14:481–91.


Key Dates







Published Online First




How to Cite


Similar Articles

1-10 of 532

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.