Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development <p><strong>Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (print): 2520-0917</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (online): <strong>2520-0925</strong></strong></p> <p><strong>The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD)</strong> is an international <strong>peer-reviewed open access</strong> scientific journal published by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE). JEASD is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). JEASD is published bimonthly, and the issues appear at the beginning of each other month.</p> <p><strong>Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically through the Journal submission system on the following website:</strong></p> <p><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> </a></strong></p> <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>JEASD is an open access journal where all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC BY 4.0 (<a href=""></a>) that licensees are unrestrictedly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The authors hold the copyright for their published work on JEASD website, while JEASD is responsible for appreciate citation for their work, which is released under CC-BY-4.0 enabling the unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>License</strong></p> <p>Creative Commons-Attribution (CC BY 4.0) <strong><a href=""><img src="" /></a></strong></p> <p><strong>Article Processing Charges (APC)</strong></p> <p>As an Open Access journal, publishing an article in this journal requires an Article Processing Charge (APC) that will be billed to the submitting author following acceptance. There are no other fees (for example submission charges, page charges, or color charges). The Article Processing Charge for the journal is 75000ID (about 50US$) . Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD) does not offer waiving policy. Payment can be made by Manual Recite. </p> <p>This APC was first applied in 20/07/2020</p> College of Engineering, University of Mustansiriyah, en-US Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development 2520-0917 <div class="aboutSection"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (</span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="" target="xrefwindow"></a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">) that licensees are unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The journal allows the author(s) to retain the copyright of their published article.</span></div> <div>Creative Commons-Attribution (BY) <a href=""><img src="" /></a></div> EFFECT OF ADSORPTION CONDITIONS ON THE REMOVAL OF LEAD (II) USING SEWAGE SLUDGE AS ADSORBENT MATERIAL <p>The introduction of more stringent legislation limiting the disposal and use of sewage sludge, combined with an increase in its production and the loss of previously recognized disposal routes, has sparked a search for alternate applications for sewage sludge. The conversion of sludge into adsorbents is one of the promising technologies give a more stable treatment of sludge. In a batch mode adsorption, adsorbent created by recycling sewage sludge was employed as a sustainable and low-cost material to remove pb (II) ions from manufactured polluted aqueous solutions. A laboratory test was done to determine the influence of a variety of operational parameters on Pb (II) adsorption, including the acidic function (pH), absorbent dosage, agitation speed, agitation period, and initial&nbsp;&nbsp; concentration at room temperature. The maximum removal efficiency was 88.2 % at optimum factors pH=4, agitation time =250 rpm, agitation time=180 min, adsorbent dose=1.5 g and initial concentration=50 (mg/l). In this way sewage sludge, which pollutes the environment and is costly to treat, may be disposed of in a useful and economic way to achieve the lowest pb (II) concentration level.</p> Ahmed M. Fat’hi Ahmed H. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 1 9 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.1 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A MANTLE HEAT EXCHANGER <p>The following work deals with numerical investigation of a storage tank equipped with a mantle annular cavity surrounding it. Heat is transferred via the working fluid flowing in the mantle side to the inner storage tank. Water at constant temperature of 60 oC enters the mantle to heat the tank and exits at a lower temperature. The study is carried out using the commercial software Ansys−Fluent to track the change of water temperature in the tank and mantle side during the simulated period of 60 minutes. Temperature contours of tank water and mantle water are drawn at several time intervals during the simulated period. The effects of changing working fluid mass flow rate were taken into account through three values, namely; 0.0077, 0.015 and 0.02 kg/s. Three values of mantle gap thickness; 10, 15 and 20 mm, and three values of mantle length; 250, 300 and 350 mm were applied in the simulation program and their effects were monitored and displayed. Results show that increasing the value of mass flow rate causes more heat transfer rate to the storage tank. The gap thickness of 10 mm which is the smallest value among the three applied values gave the best heat transfer rate and the mantle length of 300 mm was the optimum among the applied values. The heat transfer rate to the tank was studied in terms of tank mean temperature. The maximum mean tank temperature achieved at the end of the simulated period was 42<sup>o</sup>C.</p> Amina M. Ogla Aouf A. Al-Tabbakh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 10 17 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.2 UTILIZING WASTE HEAT FROM THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE BY USING A TWO-STAGE HEAT EXCHANGER <p>Refrigeration, and air conditioning systems are designed to transport heat from internal spaces or products and discard it into the surrounding. Refutation of heat might happen in a straight line to the air, as in the case of most conventional units of air-source, or to water flowing from a cooling tower. This heat is of a "low-grade diversity", it still signifies wasted energy. According to the viewpoint of energy conservation, it would be necessary to regain this heat in a serviceable form. In this research, a practical study aims to collect the heat emitted from the cooling condenser by 35% and exploit it in heating hot water for domestic purposes, in addition to other uses, including reducing the consumption of electrical energy as a result of exploiting and collecting waste heat, from cooling devices using a system consisting of two types of helical heat exchangers and two stages. The first stage consists of a tube-in-tube helical exchanger and the second stage includes a tube-in-shell heat exchanger using R410A refrigerant. The EES engineering equation solving program was used to solve the numerical equations that are used to solve problems related to thermodynamics, due to its high accuracy in solving equations, extracting values and graphs, and calculating the performance coefficient of the COP to obtain better efficiency for the work of the system, as it was found that the higher the temperature. As a result of increasing the flow rate of deionized water, the percentage of performance coefficient of COP has increased.</p> Safaa M. Ali Maathe A. Theeb Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 18 26 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.3 INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF (EPOXY-RESOLE BLEND) MATRIX HYBRID COMPOSITE <p>This research aims to investigate the impact of fibre reinforcement on the mechanical properties of hybrid polymer matrix composites. The samples made of a hybrid polymer composite were made from the reaction of two polymers, 90% epoxy resin and 10% Resole resin, and were reinforced with two types of reinforcements. The reinforcement used for the current research was carbon and Kevlar fibers. The fibers were in plain weave and were added in volumetric fractions. This research assessed mechanical characteristics like tensile strength, hardness, and impact strength in two cases: one for epoxy/Resole blend only and the other for a hybrid composite material. The addition of fibre reinforcement improves the mechanical properties of the epoxy. Kevlar fiber provides the best mechanical properties for the epoxy/Resole blend when reinforced with two layers of kevlar fibers.</p> Mohanad S. Hassan Yasir K. Ibrahim Ismail I. Marhoon Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 27 32 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.4 INFLUENCE THE CHANNEL PATH ON HYDRO-THERMAL PERFORMANCE IN SERPENTINE MINI- CHANNEL HEAT SINK <p>The current work aims to inspect the influence of formation flow on hydrothermal performance and the uniformity of base temperature in the serpentine mini channel heat sink. The study was conducted by changing the flow formation with the straight channel model [A] and the wavy channel model [B] and by changing the place of inlet and outlet by putting the entrance at the heat sink center and using water as the working fluid. To obtain the numerical results, a 3D (ANSYS Fluent program) is used. A comparison between the numerical findings in the current work and experimental results from the literature review is carried out. The comparison shows moral agreement between the numerical and experimental findings. Moreover, the outcomes display that flow configuration has a great influence on the distribution of temperature and pressure drop. Although the model with straight channels enhances the temperature uniformity and pressure drop. Additionally, the overall performance factor (OPF) for all new models under study is better than traditional model. The average OPF for model [A] is (1.43) and for model [B] is (1.26). In addition, model [A] is better as compared with model [B] by 11.89% due to the efficient OPF and the uniformity of temperature in the base.</p> Hind M. Mohammed Basim H. Abood Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 33 43 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.5 FINITE-ELEMENT CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES IN THE DEFERENT SHAPES OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS WINDING UNDER SHORT CIRCUIT CONDITION <p>This paper is concerned with calculating the electromagnetic forces in the windings of distribution transformers with different shapes of coils. The electromagnetic forces as well as the magnetic flux density and their distribution were analyzed and calculated using Finite Element Method (FEM). The Finite Element models of the distribution transformers with non-linear magnetic characteristics for the iron core are built using FEM software "ANSYS". In this paper, the static analysis method is based on two-dimensional models, and these models have been solved by using the formula for the magnetic vector voltage (A). Three types of three-phase distribution transformers were adopted, each with a capacity of 250 kVA and a voltage ratio is 11/0.416 kV. These types of transformers with different shapes of coils are stack core transformer with oval coil, wound core transformer with rectangular coil, and stack core transformer with cylindrical coil. The results obtained from the FEM analysis agreed with the design calculations which depend on the conventional design formulas. The most important contributions of this study are to building two-dimensional models for different types of distribution transformers. Calculating electromagnetic forces in transformers winding during short circuit conditions in different coil shapes. Studding the effect of the shape of the coils on the calculation of the electromagnetic forces in them. This work can save time, effort, and cost for transformer manufacturers in calculating the electromagnetic forces, also using this model for the virtual test leads to avoid the risk, and efforts spent to do the real short-circuit test.</p> Weeam J. Hussein Kassim R. Hameed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 44 61 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.6 THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MULTI USER OFDM ORTHOGONAL CHAOTIC VECTOR SHIFT KEYING SUPPORTED BY LDPC <p>Recently, LDPC code have become very important research area in wireless communication due to its ability to increase the capacity in a wireless fading environment, with low implementation complexity. In this paper, LDPC are combined with Multi User OFDM Orthogonal Chaotic Vector Shift Keying (MU-OFDM-OCVSK) communication system to improve the BER performance over multi-path Rayleigh fading channels. Two types of LDPC decoder are introduced that are Log-Domain and Min-Sum decoder. The system is simulated using MATLAB program version 2019a for different scenarios which include different number of iterations, different block lengths, different number of users and different number of spreading factor. The results show that a coding gain in a range of (4.5 – 7) dB is achieved between the coded and uncoded MU-OFDM-OCVSK system. The results also show that the Min-Sum decoder outperform the Log-Domain decoder in all scenarios.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ansam M. Abed Fadhil S. Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 62 72 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.7 COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION FROM KARBALA 1979 AND WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM 1984 TO IRAQI GEOSPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM <p>Nowadays, the transformation between coordinate systems is the major interested problems especially in Iraq. There are many coordinate systems used to produce maps and documentations due to different datums and spheroids. These coordinate systems are preferable to be unified in local countries. Thus, this paper deals with the transformation of coordinate systems of Karbala 1979 Polservice and World Geodetic System (WGS) 1984 to Iraqi Geospatial Reference System (IGRS). Accurate and well distributed control points are selected to cover the study area in Baghdad city, Iraq. Coordinate transformations are implemented using ArcGIS application mainly. Also, MATLAB software is used to convert geographic to map coordinates and vice versa by designing two MATLAB programs. The differences between the coordinate systems have been calculated. The results found that the discrepancies between Karbala 1979 Polservice and IGRS are about 278.6 m, -287.6 m, 0.01 second, and -11.2 second in northing, easting, latitude, and longitude, respectively. The WGS 1984 is superposed to IGRS and the distinction between them is negligible. The map coordinate differences between ArcGIS and MATLAB results are about -16 to 14 mm in northing and about -13 to 12 mm in easting, while the latitude and longitude differences are zero.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ruba Y. Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 26 3 73 83 10.31272/jeasd.26.3.8