Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development <p><strong>Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (print): 2520-0917</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (online): <strong>2520-0925</strong></strong></p> <p><strong>The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD)</strong> is an international <strong>peer-reviewed open-access</strong> scientific journal published by the College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is being used to assure the publication's quality. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE). JEASD is an open-access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). JEASD is published bimonthly, and the issues appear at the beginning of each other month.</p> <p><strong>Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically through the Journal submission system on the following website:</strong></p> <p><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> </a></strong></p> <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>JEASD is an open-access journal where all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC BY 4.0 (<a href=""></a>) that licensees are unrestrictedly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The authors hold the copyright for their published work on JEASD website, while JEASD is responsible for appreciating citation for their work, which is released under CC-BY-4.0 enabling the unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>License</strong></p> <p>Creative Commons-Attribution (CC BY 4.0) <strong><a href=""><img src="" /></a></strong></p> <p><strong>Article Processing Charges (APC)</strong></p> <p>As an Open Access journal, publishing an article in this journal requires an Article Processing Charge (APC) that will be billed to the submitting author following acceptance. There are no other fees (for example submission charges, page charges, or color charges). The Article Processing Charge for the journal is 75000ID (about 50US$). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD) does not offer waiving policy. Payment can be made by Manual Recite. </p> <p>This APC was first applied in 20/07/2020</p> College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq en-US Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development 2520-0917 <div class="aboutSection"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (</span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="" target="xrefwindow"></a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">) that licensees are unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The journal allows the author(s) to retain the copyright of their published article.</span></div> <div>Creative Commons-Attribution (BY) <a href=""><img src="" /></a></div> OPTIMIZATION OF DIFFERENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY- A REVIEW <p>Several chemical and biological processes have been investigated and predicted using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) models. Response Surfaces Methodology is a useful instrument for designing laboratory-scale experiments that optimize and support the research outcomes with statistical analysis. It is a powerful statistical technique for complex variable study systems. The standard optimization (one component at a time) strategy is well-studied. However, it has significant drawbacks, such as requiring more experimental runs and time and failing to reveal the synergistic impact of processing parameters. It is a valuable instrument for process improvement. Recent research has shown, for instance, that RSM successfully optimizes biodiesel in fats and oils generated from diverse feedstocks. According to this study, Response Surface Methodology is the best cost-effective technique for maximizing environmentally friendly and sustainable methods applied to different experimental procedures. The current review reported RSM's application, theory, methodology, advantages, and limitations for different processes using different oil sources.</p> Hiba Zaid Zainab Al-sharify Muhammad Hazwan Hamzah Salih Rushdi Copyright (c) 2022 Hiba, Zainab Al-sharify, hazwan, Salih 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 1 12 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.1 BUILDING A HYDRAULIC MODEL TO RAISE THE LEVEL OF THE TIGRIS RIVER IN THE SCARCITY PERIOD <p>Due to the flow’s lack from Turkey and Iran, the Tigris River has recently been suffering from a decrease in water elevations and the emergence of dry areas in some parts of the river. This drought impacts the water levels needed by the liquefaction station and agricultural area, making it a research problem. Therefore, the Tigris River needs to find an effective technical means to increase its water level to a level that does not cause dry areas to appear in any part of the river and does not lead to water flooding in neighboring areas, to be considered a research objective. The research followed the simulation methodology, in which a hydraulic model was built to simulate the river's water levels to detect critical levels. Another hydraulic model was designed and gated weirs were proposed that increased the water level to reach the required levels. The most important finding is that the design of a weir with dimensions of 10 * 3 m of the gated Inline type and in the shape of the Ogee Spillway Crest downstream of the river can contribute to raising the water level in times of scarcity by 1.92 m from its original level. In times of flood, the design of a 5-gate weir of dimensions of 10 * 4 m will maintain a water level between 26.8- 35.2 m along the course of the river and will contribute to raising the water level by 2.23 m from its original level in the estuary.</p> Ali Dhafer Abed Md Azlin Md Said Copyright (c) 2022 Ali Dhafer Abed, Md Azlin Md Said 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 13 22 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF SAGO PALM-CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY HYBRID COMPOSITES <p>Natural fibers are potential alternatives to synthetic fibers. Sago palm is a new type of natural fiber and has the potential same as other existing natural fibers. In this study, the mechanical properties of sago palm/carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy hybrids were studied. Impact tests were conducted to study the impact properties of sago palm-carbon fiber-reinforced X hybrid composites. The hybrid composites contain woven sago palm fiber and carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin produced by the vacuum compaction method. Each sample was prepared with different volume fractions such as 40%, 64%, and 91% of composition sago palm fiber. After the preparation of composite material, mechanical properties tests were studied on the prepared sample. In addition, by using Scanning Electron Microscope Tests, the failure mode is investigated. It can be concluded that 40% of sago palm fiber contains the best impact behavior compared to 64% and 91% of sago palm fiber loading because it’s high in impact resistance.</p> Safinaz Binti Saad Suhad D. Salman Zulkiflle Leman Munir Faraj Alkbir Copyright (c) 2022 Safinaz Binti Saad, Suhad D. Salman, Zulkiflle Leman, Munir Faraj Alkbir 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 23 29 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.3 REDUCING THE CROSS-POLARIZATION PATTERN IN A DUAL-POLARIZED ANTENNA USING SPIRAL AND SPLIT RING RESONATORS <p>This paper introduces the design of a new dual polarization rectangular microstrip patch antenna based on metamaterial structures at X-band. The work focuses on two distinct configurations of a microstrip patch antenna utilizing metamaterials. Pairs of spiral ring resonators are loaded into a rectangular patch antenna system in the first design. The second strategy involves inserting a split ring resonator at the end of microstrip feed lines. The utilization of metamaterial structures in the microstrip antenna system compensates for the patch antenna's asymmetric current distribution of the flow, resulting in symmetrical current distribution. The simulation results display an import cross-polarization cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) and good port decoupling. The antenna system has various characteristics, including a basic structure and metamaterial inclusions that take up a small amount of space, making the suggested metamaterial inclusions more beneficial for dual-linear polarized patch antenna construction. These prototypes are suitable to work for polarimetric radars.</p> Sadiq K. Ahmed Madhukar Chandra Zaid A. Abdul Hassain Copyright (c) 2022 Sadiq K. Ahmed, Madhukar Chandra, Zaid A. Abdul Hassain 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 30 38 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.4 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A MULTI-RECEIVER WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM BASED ON TRANSMITTER CONTROL METHOD <p>As is usual in a multiple-receiver wireless power transfer (WPT) system based on s-s geometry, the power of load obtained and system efficiency are very sensitive to changes in the number of receivers. An improved multi-receivers WPT system is introduced that ensures the power given for each load remains stable while other receivers enter or exit the system. This study proposes a multiple-load WPT system operated by a class E amplifier. The equivalent system circuit model is analyzed of major parameters such as receiver power, transmitter power, transmission efficiency<strong>,</strong> and each load power allocation. A control circuit is proposed to obtain high transmission efficiency, power control for the transmitter<strong>,</strong> and arbitrary power distribution ratios of receivers for different loads. The cross-coupling between the receiver coils is prevented by adding compensating capacitors at the receiver side in series. This further increases the power stability obtained by loads. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed process, simulation results are presented.</p> Muthana J. Mohammed Turki K. Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 39 51 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.5 A REVIEW ON BOND PERFORMANCE OF FRP-CONCRETE SYSTEM AT VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS <p>Strengthening concrete structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is one of the most commonly used technique to repair and rehabilitate concrete members due to the advanced properties of FRP over other conventional materials such as steel plates. The required performance of FRP-concrete system is linked to achieve proper bond between FRP and concrete substrates that as exposed to different environmental conditions. In the current paper, a review is conducted to highlight the most reported work by other researchers regarding the bond behavior of concrete members that strengthened with FRP in shear-tension and exposed to temperature-based conditions and compared with ambient conditions. The current review focused on the conducted work on FRP/concrete system that strengthened with two different installation techniques (externally bonding (ES) and near–Surface mounted (NSM)) using two different bonding agents (epoxy-based adhesive (EBA) and cement-based adhesive (CBA)) with and without modification. The adoption of two specific bond test procedures (adhesion and single lap shear tests) at ambient conditions and temperature-based conditions was also reviewed intensively to clarify the advantages and drawbacks associated with each test. Some reported findings by others in conducting bond test methods for different FRP/concrete systems were highlighted as well to address the gap in knowledge and the need for further research in this regard.</p> Rawaa Al-Safy Copyright (c) 2022 Rawaa Al-Safy 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 52 66 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.6 THE EFFECT OF NOISE EXPOSURE IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ON STUDENT E-LEARNING DURING CORONA PANDEMIC <p>During the past decades, environmental noise and its negative effects on humans in its entire social, economic, and health aspects have been addressed. However, the study of the impact of noise in residential buildings on E-learning for university students during the lockdown period due to the Corona pandemic, specifically in Iraq, had not been sufficiently studied, which is the research problem. The research aims to explain the acoustic insulation and the negative impact of noise exposure in residential buildings on E-learning for university students during the quarantine period. A questionnaire was conducted for several Iraqi university students. The questionnaire has detected many indications (noise sources, use of headphones, duration of use, effects of noise exposure, and noise insulation control). The results showed the negative effects of noise that the students may feel, such as hearing difficulty, lack of concentration, raising the voice when speaking, discomfort, tinnitus, headache, and nausea; and determining the student’s knowledge of noise and their opinions. The research recommends the adoption of acoustic insulation in residential buildings to reduce the negative effects of noise exposure on E-learning education.</p> Shatha AJ. Ibrahim Suzan Abd Hassan Mohammed Ali Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 shatha ibrahim, Suzan Abd Hassan, Mohammed Ali Rasheed 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 67 74 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.7 INVESTMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY OF URBAN HERITAGE THROUGH REUSE <p>The research addressed the two elements of investment and the sustainability of urban heritage, not being opposed (investment represents a state of emancipation). Still, as development vehicles by adapting urban heritage to keep pace with the requirements of contemporary life while maintaining the traditional image of heritage, investment is the tool of its development.</p> <p>Attention to urban heritage and its sustainability as economic efficiency-in general- and an investment project -in specific- requires development in reading heritage values. To include economic values in it, which are modern studies on which the economic feasibility of investing in urban heritage projects to sustain it.</p> <p>This aspect was investigated and reinforced with local, Arab and international examples to conclude that re-use with tourist or cultural functions required by the local community is the best economic way to sustain the architectural heritage because it provides self-financing for sustainability requirements and contributes to making this heritage vital and effective in social life, as well as its societal benefits.</p> Areej Kareem Majeed AL-Sadkhan Kadhum Mohsin Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 26 6 1- Ar-12 10.31272/jeasd.26.6.8