Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development <p><strong>Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (print): 2520-0917</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (online): 2520-0925</strong></p> <p><strong>The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD)</strong> is an international <strong>peer-reviewed open-access</strong> scientific journal published by the College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. It aims at disseminating leading-edge knowledge and expertise in multi-disciplinary sustainable engineering topics to researchers, academic scientists, and postgraduate students. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is being used to assure the publication's quality. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE). JEASD is an open-access journal in that contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). JEASD is published bimonthly, and the issues appear at the beginning of each other month.</p> <p><strong>Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically through the Journal submission system on the following website:</strong></p> <p><a href=""></a><a href=""> </a></p> <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>JEASD is an open-access journal where all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC BY 4.0 (<a href=""></a>) that licensees are unrestrictedly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The authors hold the copyright for their published work on JEASD website, while JEASD is responsible for appreciating citation for their work, which is released under CC-BY-4.0 enabling the unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>License</strong></p> <p>Creative Commons-Attribution (CC BY 4.0) </p> <p><strong>Article Processing Charges (APC)</strong></p> <p>As an Open Access journal, publishing an article in this journal requires an Article Processing Charge (APC) that will be billed to the submitting author following acceptance. There are no other fees (for example submission charges, page charges, or color charges). The Article Processing Charge for the journal is 75000ID (about 57US$). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD) does not offer waiving policy. Payment can be made by Manual Receipt. </p> <p>This APC was first applied in 20/07/2020</p> <div> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p>All manuscripts under review or published with JEASD are subject to screening using Plagiarism Prevention Software <strong><em>Turnitin</em></strong>. Plagiarism is a serious violation of publication ethics. Other violations include duplicate publication, data fabrication and falsification, and improper credit of author contribution. Thus, Plagiarism or Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior are unacceptable, and submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. It is necessary to mention that JEASD may ignore a duplicated manuscript of up to 20%.</p> <p>The development of CrossCheck is a service that helps editors to verify the originality of papers. CrossCheck is powered by the <strong><em>Turnitin</em> </strong>software. For a searchable list of all journals in the CrossCheck database, please visit <a href=""></a></p> <p>All new submissions to JEASD are screened using <a href=""> </a>Editorial board members may also choose to run a similarity report at any other point during the review process or post-publication. The default similarity report view gives the percentage of the text of the manuscript which has overlap with one or more published articles. Figures and equations cannot be checked at present. Note that a high similarity score does not necessarily indicate plagiarized text. A similarity score of 30% could mean 30% text in common with one source but could equally mean 1% text in common with 30 different sources. Re-used text that has been legitimately cited in the Bibliography may all contribute to the similarity score. The subject knowledge of an editorial expert is vital in order to interpret the CrossCheck report and determine whether there are any grounds for concern.</p> <p><strong>Digital Archiving</strong></p> <p>JEASD has electronic backup and preservation of access to the content of the journal. via <a href="">PKP Preservation Network (PKP PN)</a>. The <a href="">LOCKSS</a> program offers decentralized and distributed preservation, seamless perpetual access, and preservation of the authentic original version of the content. All the journal’s published articles are now accessible through the journal’s page on the repository: <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Backup</strong></p> </div> <div> <p>JEASD implements an additional backup policy to protect against data loss.</p> <p>Onsite Backup: The onsite full server backups provide disaster recovery options to help protect against data loss or corruption. Onsite backups are run daily by the host and retained for 7 days by default. The backup is performed on the main hosting server hetzner, and on the substitute hosting server ovh.</p> <p>Remote Backup: JEASD ensures 7-day backups of the OJS database and daily backups of the cPanel for disaster recovery.</p> </div> en-US <div class="aboutSection"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (</span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="" target="xrefwindow"></a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">) that licensees are unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The journal allows the author(s) to retain the copyright of their published article.</span></div> <div>Creative Commons-Attribution (BY) <a href=""><img src="" /></a></div> (Ali Al-Ghalib) (Ali Fattah Hasoon) Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 THE IMPACT OF MODERNITY ON TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS IN BAGHDAD <p>This research traces the study of the development of traditional housing in Baghdad in terms of the internal changes of housing and the impact of modernity on them in AL Adhamiya area in the city of Baghdad.&nbsp; where 6 houses from this area are selected as a non-comprehensive intentional sample to be studied, analyzed and compared to the rest of the pattern of the Modern residential period, based on detailed plans, pictures and illustrations. The main objective of this paper is to identify the process of transformation in the type, spatial and visual style of the houses through the application of comparative evaluation of different periods and to indicate the impact of modernity on the disruption or improvement of the houses in Baghdad in order to study the continuity of these patterns or ruptures among them. The conclusions are drawn to emphasize contemporary challenges.</p> Shahbaa Ahmed Ali, M. Tayfun Yildirim Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN OF A DUAL-BAND REJECTION PLANAR ULTRA-WIDEBAND (UWB) ANTENNA <p>A novel Slotted-Decagon-Shaped (SDS) antenna is presented for Ultra Wide Band (UWB) applications. This antenna has two slots; the first one is printed on the lower side, and the second on the upper side of the conducting patch. The feeding technique used to feed this antenna is a 50Ω strip line. Return losses, bandwidth, radiation pattern, and, gain of the presented SDS antenna are tested. These characteristics denote it fitting for UWB wireless communication systems. The SDS antenna was fabricated and tested at the laboratories of the Iraqi-ministry of science and technology and the result shows a fine agreement between simulation and measured S<sub>11</sub>. The SDS antenna has a compact size of 19.3mm×36mm×1.6mm. Measured results show that the SDS antenna has favorable properties of S<sub>11</sub> less than −10 dB and a quasi-stable gain of 2 to 4.5 dB over UWB, with the exception of the notched WiMAX (3.3-3.7 GHz) &amp; WLAN (5.1-5.8 GHz) bands.</p> Sahar K. Hassan, Adheed H. Sallomi, Musa H. Wali Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MICROBIAL-INDUCED CALCITE PRECIPITATION" AS A POTENTIAL SUSTAINABLE TECHNIQUE FOR POLLUTED SOIL BIOREMEDIATION: A REVIEW <p>Industrialization and population growth have increased the emission and buildup of environmental heavy metals. These components' bioaccumulation as exposure have been related to a range of illnesses and cancer, and the mechanical and physical properties of soil are altered. The "Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation" is an environmentally green, friend, and sustainable method. This review focused on the metal remediation technology's effects and how to make them sustainable and more environmentally friendly. Many bacteria produce urease, the bacillus is a more common type. Bacteria, with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 3.0µm, are the most common microbes found in soils. It is critical to examine the type of soil, Bacterial size, and size of pore throat. The calcium carbonate majority tends to coat the surface of soils with coarse particles in the state of the contact points in soils with particles smaller than bacterial size (heterogeneous and limited precipitation). The bacterial concentration appears to affect crystal shape, calcium carbonate formation, and the cementation effect of geomaterials. Calcite precipitation takes place most when the pH is between 7.5 and 9.5. Calcite is formed three times at 50°C, while the unconfined compressive strength is only 60% of that at 25°C. Calcium carbonate can be immobilized or formed into undissolved compounds by binding free ions to the calcium carbonate's surfaces, resulting in a form of non-toxic and chemically stable.</p> Zahraa Samer Hadi, Khitam Abdulhussein Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN OF MIMO ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION APPLICATIONS <p>The development of a new compact Ultra Wideband (UWB) antenna. The main advantages of the proposed array configuration are that it requires no isolation/decoupling circuit between the elements of the MIMO array. The suggested antenna has an impedance bandwidth of (3.1_10.6) GHz. The antenna dimension is (25×58×1.6) mm<sup>3</sup>. It is based on a simple patch antenna configuration with a simple hexagonal radiator and partial ground. The partial ground is used to improve the reflection coefficient and isolation. A 16.54mm x 9mm ground plane is used. Each element was fed through a 50Ω microstrip transmission line (MTL). The suggested antenna is polarized linearly. It performs admirably at 10.46 GHz, with a gain of 1.77dB, a reflection coefficient of 28.42dB, VSWR approx 1, an envelope correlation coefficient very close to 0 dB, a diversity gain of 10dB, and isolation of 50.44dB, respectively, and suggested antenna's diversity characteristics, such as ECC and diversity gain, are also modeled.</p> Rasha Basil Nassir, Ali Khalid Jassim Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF METAL WIRE MESH ON TENSILE, COMPRESSION AND WATER ABSORPTION FOR BLEND POLYMER <p>This work aims to enhance the polymeric composite properties by adding Iron wire mesh (Fe) and aluminum wire mesh (Al) as reinforcement materials with various ratios. A polymer blend of the [epoxy (EP)+ polyester (UPS)] as matrix material has been utilized. The hand layup approach has been utilized for manufacturing castings. Epoxy and polyester have been mixed with different volume ratios, involving (95:5,90:10, 85:15,80:20, and 75:25 Vol.%) of (epoxy: polyester). The blend was reinforced with metal mesh with volume fractions (5,10,15, and 20%). The results show the best ratios of ultimate tensile strength are (95% epoxy + 5% unsaturated polyester), and tensile strength and young modulus increase with increased volume fraction of metal mesh. The best compressive strength (CS) value was obtained for a sample of (95% epoxy +5% unsaturated polyester). The compressive strength increased with the increased volume fraction of iron mesh but reduced with the used aluminum wire mesh. Also, water absorption increased with increased unsaturated polyester, iron mesh, and aluminum mesh percentage.</p> Akram Q. Moften, Ismail I. Marhoon, Yasir K. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF SIFCON ON TORSIONAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS <p>In recent years, research into the effects of torsion in concrete members and the impact of novel materials on torsional behavior has increased. Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON) is a special kind of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). The purpose of this research is to study the influence of SIFCON on the torsion behavior of reinforced concrete beams. In the experimental program, five beam specimens are cast and tested under pure torsion. Two of them were from normal concrete as a reference, two from SIFCON with a steel fiber volume of 10% and the last beam was normal concrete strengthening by SIFCON with a steel fiber volume of 10%. The results have indicated enhancement in an ultimate torsional moment of SIFCON beams when compared with the reference, normal concrete beam. In addition, by reducing the twist angle and increasing torsional stiffness, the resistance moment of torsion was improved.</p> Zahraa Mohammed khalifah, Mohammed Mohammed Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR WITH NON-UNIFORM STATOR SLOTS BASED ON MAGNET SOFTWARE AND AUTOCAD <p>The current study uses the finite element technique to investigate a single-phase induction motor with non-uniform stator slots. A 0.5 hp, four poles, 36 stator slots, and 48 rotor slots have non-uniform stator slots were analyzed based on magnet Finite Element Method software with using AutoCAD in modeling stator due to its unsymmetrical slots, The suggested study attempts to evaluate all motor design modifications. The values of currents and torque received from the FEM analysis for the test motor were compared with motor nameplate data with a good agreement.</p> Marwa A. Dawood, Amer M. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF THE GAIT SPEED ON A NEW PROSTHETIC SHANK BELOW KNEE <p>One of the most important problems that the components of the prosthetic limbs suffer from; is the increase in walking speed leads to an increase in the ground reaction force. In this research, a new shank was designed and manufactured using the porous functionally graded materials by a 3D printer of PLA material, and to ensure the success of this shank, several tests were conducted on it, including to know the mechanical properties, as well as the life test by a special device that was manufactured. A test was conducted to know the life of the shank when normal walking (about 1.35 m/sec) and running ( about 6 m / sec ), and it was found that this shank was successful and did not fail in that test, the prosthetic foot ( type SACH) failed before it at normal speed and high speed.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zainab H. Zaier, Kadhim K. Resan Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EXTRACTION OF DOUBLE-DIODE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE MODEL’S PARAMETERS USING HYBRID OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM <p>This paper presents seven parameters of double diode model of the photovoltaic module under different weather conditions are extracted using differential development with an integrated mutation per iteration (DEIM) algorithm. The algorithm is produced by integrating of two other algorithms namely, electromagnetism like (EML) and differential evolution (DE) algorithms. DEIM enhances the mutation step of the original DE by using the attraction-repulsion principle found in the EML algorithm. Meanwhile, a novel strategy based on adjusting mutation and crossover rate factors for each iteration is adopted in this paper. The implemented scheme's success is confirmed by comparing its results with those obtained by techniques cited in the literature. Along with the results, the DEIM suggests high closeness with the experimental I–V characteristic. For the proposed algorithm the average Root Mean Square Error ( MSE), Absolute Error (AE ), Mean Bias Error ( MBE), and execution time values were 0.0608, 0.044, 0.0053, and 23.333, respectively. The comparisons and evaluation results proved that the DEIM is better in terms of precision and rapid convergence. Furthermore, fewer control parameters are needed in comparison to EML and DE algorithms.</p> Mawj M. Abbas, Dhiaa H. Muhsen Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM ION IN TREATMENT OF DAIRY WASTEWATER <p>In this article, it has been prepared synthetic dairy samples according to the global dairy wastewater characteristics. Has been used the OGAWA SEIKI Ltd apparatus and applied on these samples to predict the behavior of the alum in the treatment process. Physiochemical analyses were achieved to samples before and after treatment to stand on the ability of success. These tests have been achieved according to The experimental tests of characteristics were done as stated by American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and Water Environment Federation (WEF). Results showed that behind the high removal, efficiency is many mechanical terms of coagulation, perhaps the most prominent of which is the scavenging mechanism. The effectiveness of the aluminum ion is at a certain limit, in limited pH, an increase in the concentration of this ion means an increase in the concentration of the positive charge and get the inverse effect. due to the wide capacity of aluminum ions to make bonds by combining with negative roots, it has been noticed the percentage removal of phosphorus reached up to 95%. These compounds create aluminum phosphorus flocs. &nbsp;The aluminum phosphorus compounds have gelatinous properties could make enmeshment and attract different particles and then settling in the bottom.</p> Ali A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000