Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development <p><strong>Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (print): 2520-0917</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (online): 2520-0925</strong></p> <p><strong>The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD)</strong> is an international <strong>peer-reviewed open-access</strong> scientific journal published by the College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. It aims at disseminating leading-edge knowledge and expertise in multi-disciplinary sustainable engineering topics to researchers, academic scientists, and postgraduate students. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is being used to assure the publication's quality. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the <a href="">Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE)</a>. JEASD is an open-access journal in that contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). JEASD is published bimonthly, and the issues appear at the beginning of each other month.</p> <p><strong>Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically through the Journal submission system on the following website:</strong></p> <p><a href=""></a><a href=""> </a></p> <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <p>JEASD is an open-access journal where all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC BY 4.0 (<a href=""></a>) that licensees are unrestrictedly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The authors hold the copyright for their published work on JEASD website, while JEASD is responsible for appreciating citation for their work, which is released under CC-BY-4.0 enabling the unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>License</strong></p> <p>Creative Commons-Attribution (CC BY 4.0) </p> <p><strong>Article Processing Charges (APC)</strong></p> <p>As an Open Access journal, publishing an article in this journal requires an Article Processing Charge (APC) that will be billed to the submitting author following acceptance. There are no other fees (for example submission charges, page charges, or color charges). The Article Processing Charge for the journal is 200,000ID (for international authors 150US$). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD) does not offer a waiving policy. Payment can be made by Manual Receipt. </p> <p>This APC was first applied on 16/07/2023</p> <div> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p>All manuscripts under review or published with JEASD are subject to screening using the Plagiarism Prevention Software <strong><em>Turnitin</em></strong>. Plagiarism is a serious violation of publication ethics. Other violations include duplicate publication, data fabrication and falsification, and improper credit of author contribution. Thus, Plagiarism or Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior are unacceptable, and submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. It is necessary to mention that JEASD may ignore a duplicated manuscript of up to 20%.</p> <p>The development of CrossCheck is a service that helps editors to verify the originality of papers. CrossCheck is powered by the <strong><em>Turnitin</em> </strong>software. For a searchable list of all journals in the CrossCheck database, please visit <a href=""></a></p> <p>All new submissions to JEASD are screened using <a href=""> </a>Editorial board members may also choose to run a similarity report at any other point during the review process or post-publication. The default similarity report view gives the percentage of the text of the manuscript which has overlap with one or more published articles. Figures and equations cannot be checked at present. Note that a high similarity score does not necessarily indicate plagiarized text. A similarity score of 30% could mean 30% text in common with one source but could equally mean 1% text in common with 30 different sources. Re-used text that has been legitimately cited in the Bibliography may all contribute to the similarity score. The subject knowledge of an editorial expert is vital in order to interpret the CrossCheck report and determine whether there are any grounds for concern.</p> <p><strong>Digital Archiving</strong></p> <p>JEASD has electronic backup and preservation of access to the content of the journal via the archive system <a href="">CLOCKSS</a>. It offers decentralized and distributed preservation, seamless perpetual access, and preservation of the authentic original version of the content. In addition, all the journal’s published articles are now accessible through the journal’s page on the repository: <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Backup</strong></p> </div> <div> <p>JEASD implements an additional backup policy to protect against data loss.</p> <p>Onsite Backup: The onsite full server backups provide disaster recovery options to help protect against data loss or corruption. Onsite backups are run daily by the host and retained for 7 days by default. The backup is performed on the main hosting server hetzner, and on the substitute hosting server ovh.</p> <p>Remote Backup: JEASD ensures 7-day backups of the OJS database and daily backups of the cPanel for disaster recovery.</p> </div> en-US <div class="aboutSection"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (</span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="" target="xrefwindow"></a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">) that licensees are unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The journal allows the author(s) to retain the copyright of their published article.</span></div> <div>Creative Commons-Attribution (BY) <a href=""><img src="" /></a></div> [email protected] (Dr. Abeer Khudhur Jameel) [email protected] (Ali Fattah Hasoon) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 05:51:56 +0000 OJS 60 BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCEMENT BARS IN FOUNDATION WITH SOIL TO SATISFY SUSTAINABILITY <p>This study presents the behavior of using many types of reinforcement with slab foundations to satisfy sustainability. This foundation with soil effect and two types of bar reinforcement (steel bars and geogrid) are taken. Nonlinear analysis is used with the theoretical model by finite element program software ABAQUS to represent the many types of reinforced concrete foundations with both unsaturated and saturated soil with the effect of loading. Effect of load-displacement-relationships with many cases which were taken for this study such as the geogrid and steel bar ratio in reinforcement of foundation with unsaturated and saturated soil. From this study, it is shown that reinforcement by geogrid increased the strength of the member or the foundation when taken with different ratios of reinforcement by steel bars and get the best sustainable way or solution by decreasing the reinforcement by steel. The ratio of geogrid is 40% to 20 % from total reinforcement, while the required member or foundation in the case of soil, which is unsaturated, is more strength than it is in the case of saturated soil.</p> Ali Sabah Al Amli, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Jan Laue Copyright (c) 2023 Ali Sabah Al Amli, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Jan Laue Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER ON INLINE CYLINDERS IMMERSED IN A POROUS MEDIA <p>In the present study, forced convection heat transfer on eight inline cylinders immersed in a 10 × 10 × 30 cm packed bed of porous medium is numerically explored with a range of Reynolds numbers from 1100 to 2250. The airflow passes through eight cylinders with an inline arrangement, each having a diameter of 15 mm and a length of 10 cm, immersed in a horizontal porous channel at a constant heat flux of 2000W/m<sup>2</sup>. The commercial program ANSYS Fluent R.19 simulates the changes in pressure drop and temperature distribution by changing the Reynolds number and porosity. The dimensions of each porous pack are 10x10 cm in cross-section, 5 cm in length, and 5 cm in spacing from the next porous pack. The porosity values are (0.4001, 0.39112, and 0.3822). The general shape of all temperature contours shows that the high porosity near the cylinder wall enhances heat transfer from the heated cylinder surface. After that, the air temperature gradually decreases when going away from the cylinder surface. It can also be seen that the pressure drop decreases as particle diameter increases.</p> Enas Khudhair, Dhamyaa Khudhur Copyright (c) 2023 Enas Khudhair, Dhamyaa Khudhur Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 SHEAR CAPACITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITHOUT SHEAR REINFORCEMENT: A REVIEW <p>Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams has gained excessive study, particularly beams without stirrups. Because shear failure is considered the most serious due to it occurring suddenly without warning. Because of the seriousness of the matter concerning shear failure, many researchers are looking to use additive materials that differ from traditional concrete constituents in order to improve the shear resistance of the beams, such as the use of silica fume, steel fiber, metakaolin, and many others. The current studies focused on understanding the resistance provided by the interlocking forces between the aggregate and that provided by the non-cracked compression zone, with the use of some materials that are intended to improve the properties of concrete. This paper presents a review of the previous literature that included studying the mechanism and behavior of shear failure of concrete beams without web reinforcement and also includes a presentation of the most important equations used to predict the shear capacity of concrete beams, especially those without stirrups, to understand the mechanism of failure and to know the most important factors affecting the failure of shear.</p> Mariam Ibraheem, Mohammed M. Rasheed Copyright (c) 2023 Mariam Ibraheem, Mohammed M. Rasheed Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SEMICIRCULAR SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER SYSTEM EMPLOYING POROUS COPPER METAL FOAM <p>The numerical and experimental study was carried out under Iraqi weather conditions to verify the improvement of the performance of the solar updraft tower system SUTS by introducing porous metal foam as a heat-absorbent plate. a semicircular basin of the solar collector was divided into two equal identical quarters. A porous foam material was fixed on one of the basins while the other basin was fixed on a traditional copper plate. The positions of the metal foam absorber plate are changed with two inclination angles (0֯ and 18֯) and the optimum position is achieved when it gives the highest thermal performance. A finite volume modeling technique is used to solve the governing equations and radiation heat transfer equations by using ANSYS Fluent. The experimental part was conducted in Baghdad / Iraq at latitude 33.3°. The presence of the metal foam absorber plate caused a significant decrease in the average temperatures of the heat-absorbent plate. The maximum airflow temperature was recorded with an inclined angle of 18<sup>◦</sup>. The metal foam as a heat-absorbent plate enhanced the efficiency and the output power of the SUTS to about 51.9% and 47.2% respectively compared to the traditional plate.</p> Sarmad A. Abdul Hussein, Mohammed A. Nima Copyright (c) 2023 Sarmad A. Abdul Hussein, Mohammed A. Nima Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 COOLING OF CONCENTRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AND FINS <p>The increase in cell temperature with increased irradiance is probably the most significant disadvantage of using photovoltaic with reflector modules. In this study, a developed Phase Change Material system was integrated into the rear section of a concentrating Photovoltaic system to limit its temperature rise. The heat transmission of the concentrating photovoltaic with a phase change material system was investigated using an experimental method and a numerical method. The temperature distribution was simulated numerically using ANSYS 2021 three-dimensions model. Three cases were studied: one without wax, one with wax, and one with wax and fins. The results displayed convergence between the experimental results and the numerical results<strong>.</strong> The effect of using phase change materials on performance and efficiency of concentrated photovoltaic cells, the amount of temperature reduction through the wax melting period for concentration with paraffin wax and concentration photovoltaic with fin and paraffin wax by 2.8 °C and 6 °C, respectively, as well as an enhancement in efficiency of photovoltaic at the noon time of cases by 1.807% and 3.182% related to the reference photovoltaic. The outcomes also demonstrated that using fins aids in the distribution of temperatures, resulting in regular melting of wax in comparison to wax without fins.</p> Mostafa Kareem Yousif, Muna S. Kasim Copyright (c) 2023 Mostafa Kareem Yousif, Muna S. Kasim Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 APPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES OF THE REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE PROCESS: A REVIEW <p>Reverse osmosis is one of the most prevalent methods of generating potable water owing to its low power usage, excellent rates of contaminant removal, simple design, large output capacity, and much cheaper initial and maintenance costs than comparable alternatives. In this review, the most important published research related to the reverse osmosis process was reviewed. It was found that the majority of reported studies were related to using the reverse osmosis process for water desalination and wastewater treatment. Research has proven that the reverse osmosis process is a very effective method for desalinating water and treating industrial effluent containing heavy metals, organics, and other pollutants. Fouling was found to be one of the greatest obstacles encountered by the reverse osmosis method in water treatment, which raises operating costs due to the need for frequent cleaning, reduces the membrane's lifespan, and reduces the permeate flux. In general, microfiltration/ultrafiltration pretreatment and backwashing were among the most effective strategies suggested by researchers to reduce fouling and ensure the longevity and proper operation of the system.</p> Hiba A. Mohammed, Dawood E. Sachit, Mustafa Al-Furaiji Copyright (c) 2023 Hiba A. Mohammed, Dawood E. Sachit, Mustafa Al-Furaiji Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 THE ALUM WITH AUSTRALIAN PORCELANITE ROCKS EFFECT ON TREATING AND REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS FROM DAIRY WASTEWATER <p>The dairy industry is a vital food industry in the world. The dairy industry discharges large quantities of wastewater. In this article, it has been used jar test model JLT 6 Leaching test VELP Scientific, with all apparatuses and tools that can complete work. Alum, as well as Porcelanite Rocks from the North Territory area in Australia, were used as a treatment material for the removal of phosphorus. Results showed the effectiveness of phosphorous removal using alum improves when using these rocks because they contain different concentrations of positive ions in general and aluminium ions in particular. The optimum value of Al<sup>3+</sup> is 0.5 mg/L. The percent of removal of phosphorus will reach 95.7% ̴ 96% by 1.45 mg/L of the aluminium ion. The use of Porcelanite Rocks alone. cannot lead to clear removal of phosphorous or pollutants, rather it is used as an aid. The results also showed that Porcelanite rocks play a prominent role in preparing the therapeutic conditions for alum in terms of regulating the pH for better treatment, as they raise the pH at a time when the sulphates are reduced. With 20 mg/L of Porcelanite rocks, it has been completed the best removal of phosphorus at 20 ºC. Using alum with Porcelanite rocks as assistance in treatment will improve treatment by 30-40%. This process will drop residual aluminium concentration by about 10% from the total and then exclude health effects due to aluminium ions.</p> Ali A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Ali A. Hasan Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 BIT ERROR PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT FOR UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC NOISE CHANNEL BY USING CHANNEL CODING <p>The harm that underwater noise pollution poses to aquatic ecosystems and the resources that support it are being acknowledged on a worldwide scale. Fisheries and ecotourism are only two of the important businesses that are impacted by noise pollution. Reducing underwater impact noise is a major challenge for underwater acoustic communication systems. However, the implementation of noise reduction measures (noise abatement) remains limited. Most communication systems assume that the noise is both additive and Gaussian. Underwater Acoustic Noise (UWAN) systems generally perform poorly because of the often large non-Gaussian components in intermittent noise in the ocean. This study presents an experimental model (Dolphin-EAR DE200 Series) sound channel noise underwater at Lake Diyala Hamrin, Iraq, using a hydrophone model. Low data volume, multipath propagation, low bandwidth, and higher bit error rate (BER) of received data are major issues for underwater communication systems. In this paper, the Underwater Acoustic Channel (UWAC) aspect is evaluated and an error performance term is determined from the noise in the Student's t-distribution. In addition, Signals using binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) are used to generate error power analysis.</p> Thamer Essa Murad , Yasin Yousif Al-Aboosi Copyright (c) 2023 Thamer Essa Murad , Yasin Yousif Al-Aboosi Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000