Path loss model prediction, Suburban site, Internet of Vehicles, Long Range Wireless Area Network, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks


In this paper, the effect of Long-Range wireless technology parameters on signal propagation in suburban environments is investigated. Wireless propagation modeling provides information about the wireless channel and its impact on communication links. Received signal strength and coverage area are evaluated to determine signal path loss. The operating frequency of 433 MHz Long Range Wireless Area Network is utilized with different spreading factors, bandwidths, and code rates. Empirical propagation models are utilized to predict a mathematical model based on measured empirical signal strength in a suburban site in Baghdad City. The measured signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio values were obtained through drive tests in an Internet of Vehicles environment to design a network that could accurately report vehicle locations. The LoRa parameters affected the calculated path loss exponent, leading to various predictions in the network design. The path loss exponent exhibited instability due to the presence of obstacles and different long-range parameter settings. Path loss exponent deviation fluctuates due to bandwidth and spreading factor variations. Path loss exponent reduced at higher coding rates for more protection purposes. Packet ratio reception improved as the coding rate increased. To minimize the impact of the path loss on network design, an optimization policy was employed to determine the best parameters that resulted in the lowest path loss. The optimal path loss obtained at LoRa configuration parameters settings with spreading factor (7), bandwidth (500 kHz), and code rate (4/5).


Wortmann, F., Flüchter, K. (2015). Internet of Things: technology and value added. Business & Information Systems Engineering, Springer. Vol. 57, Issue: 3, pp. 221–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-015-0383-3

Karim, S. M., Habbal, A., Chaudhry, S.A., and Irshad, A. (2022). Architecture, Protocols, and Security in IoV: Taxonomy, Analysis, Challenges, and Solution. Security and Communication Networks. Vol. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1131479

Álamos, A., Kietzmann, P., Schmidt, T. and Wählisch, M. (2022). DSME-LoRa: Seamless Long-range Communication between Arbitrary Nodes in the Constrained IoT. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks. Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 1-43. https://doi.org/10.1145/3552432

Haxhibeqiri, J., Karaagac, A., Abeele, F.V., Joseph, W., Moerman, I., Hoebeke, J. (2017). “LoRa indoor coverage and performance in an industrial environment: Case study”. Proc. of the 22nd IEEE Int. Conf. on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Cyprus, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2017.8247601

Avila-Campos, P., Astudillo-Salinas, F., Vazquez-Rodas, A. and Araujo, A. (2019). “Evaluation of LoRaWAN Transmission Range for Wireless Sensor Networks in Riparian Forests”. Proc. of the 22nd Int. ACM Conf. on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWIM '19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, pp. 199–206. https://doi.org/10.1145/3345768.3355934

Harvanova, V. and Krajcovic, T. (2011). “Implementing ZigBee network in forest regions - Considerations, modeling and evaluations”. Int. Conf. on Applied Electronics, Czech Republic, pp. 1–4.

Kongsavat, A., and Karupongsiri, C. (2020). “Path Loss Model for Smart Meter on LoRaWAN Technology with Unidirectional Antenna in an Urban Area of Thailand”. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM), Singapore, pp. 260-262. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCEM47450.2020.9219522

Nsaif, B.G., and Sallomi, A.H. (2021). Path Loss Modeling For Urban Wirless Networks In Baghdad. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD). Vol. 25, Issue: Special_ Issue_2021, pp. 1-7-1-12. https://doi.org/10.31272/jeasd.conf.2.1.2

Rademacher, M., Linka, H., Horstmann, T., and Henze, M. (2021). “Path Loss in Urban LoRa Networks: A Large-Scale Measurement Study”. IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC2021-Fall), Norman, OK, USA, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/VTC2021-Fall52928.2021.9625531

Karttunen, A., Gustafson, C., Molisch, A.F., Wang, R., Hur, S., Zhang, J., Park, J. (2016). Path loss models with distance-dependent weighted fitting and estimation of censored path loss data. IET Microwave Antennas Propagation. Vol. 10, Issue: 14, pp. 1467-1474. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0042

Allen, B., Mahato, S., Gao, Y., and Salous S. (2017). Indoor-to-outdoor empirical path loss modelling for femtocell networks at 0.9, 2, 2.5 and 3.5 GHz using singular value decomposition. IET Microwave Antennas Propagation, Vol. 11, Issue: 9, pp. 1203-1211. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0416

Unterhuber, P., Sand, S., Fiebig, U.C., and Siebler B. (2018). Path loss models for train-to-train communications in typical high speed railway environments. IET Microwave Antennas Propagation, Vol. 12, Issue: 4, pp. 492-500. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2017.0600

Bertoldo, S., Paredes, M., Carosso, L., Allegretti, M. and Savi, P. (2019). “Empirical indoor propagation models for LoRa radio link in an office environment”. IEEE 13th European Conf. on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Krakow, Poland, pp. 1-5.

Ingabire, W., Larijani, H., and Gibson, R.M. (2020). “Performance Evaluation of Propagation Models for LoRaWAN in an Urban Environment”. IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Communication, and Computer Engineering (ICECCE), Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECCE49384.2020.9179234

Zakaria, Y.A., Hamad, E.K.I., Elhamid, A.S.A. and El-khatib, K.M. (2021). Developed channel propagation models and path loss measurements for wireless communication systems using regression analysis techniques. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Vol. 45, Issue: 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-021-00509-x

Gaboitaolelwe, J., Zungeru, A.M., Chuma, J., Ditshego, N. and Semong, T. (2020). A Formal Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Home Network. International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems. Vol. 13, Issue: 3, pp. 56-68. http://repository.biust.ac.bw/handle/123456789/390

Wu, H., Zhang, L., and Miao, Y. (2017). The Propagation Characteristics of Radio Frequency Signals for Wireless Sensor Networks in Large-Scale Farmland. Wireless Personal Communication, Vol. 95, pp. 3653–3670. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-017-4018-5

Callebaut, G. and Perre, L.V. (2019). Characterization of LoRa Point-to-Point Path Loss: Measurement Campaigns and Modeling Considering Censored Data. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. Vol. 7, Issue: 3, pp. 1910-1918. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2019.2953804

Lin, Y., Dong, W., Gao, Y., and Gu, T. (2020). “SateLoc: A Virtual Fingerprinting Approach to Outdoor LoRa Localization using Satellite Images”. 19th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), Sydney, NSW, Australia, pp. 13-24. https://doi.org/10.1145/3461012

Lin, K. and Hao, T. (2021). Experimental Link Quality Analysis for LoRa-Based Wireless Underground Sensor Networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. Vol. 8, Issue: 8, pp. 6565-6577. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2020.3044647

Akram, S.V., Singh, R., AlZain, M.A., Gehlot, A., Rashid, M., Faragallah, O.S., El-Shafai, W. and Prashar, D. (2021). Performance Analysis of IoT and Long-Range Radio-Based Sensor Node and Gateway Architecture for Solid Waste Management. Sensors, Vol. (21), Issue: 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082774

Anzum, R., Habaebi, M.H., Islam, M.R., Hakim, G.P.N., Khandaker, M.U., Osman, H., Alamri, S. and AbdElrahim, E. (2022). A Multiwall Path-Loss Prediction Model Using 433 MHz LoRa-WAN Frequency to Characterize Foliage's Influence in a Malaysian Palm Oil Plantation Environment. Sensors (Basel). Vol. 22, Issue: 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145397

Budi, A. H. S., Juanda, E. A., Kustiawan, I., Kurniadi, N. N. N. and Henny, H. (2021). River Water Monitoring System Using Internet Of Things To Determine The Location Of River Pollution. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 16, Issue: 4, pp. 3222-3233.

Staniec, K., and Kowal, M. (2018). LoRa Performance under Variable Interference and Heavy-Multipath Conditions. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Hindawi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6931083

Bor, M.C., Roedig, U., Voigt, T. and Alonso, J.M. (2016). “Do LoRa Low-Power Wide-Area Networks Scale?”. Proc. of the 19th ACM Int. Conf. on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM '16), Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, pp. 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1145/2988287.2989163

Saari, M., Baharudin, A. M., Sillberg, P., Hyrynsalmi, S. and Yan, W. (2018). “LoRa — A survey of recent research trends”. 41st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), Opatija, Croatia, pp. 0872-0877. https://doi.org/10.23919/MIPRO.2018.8400161

Ertürk, M.A., Aydın, M.A., Büyükakkaşlar, M.T. and Evirgen, H. (2019). A Survey on LoRaWAN Architecture, Protocol and Technologies. Future Internet, Vol. 11, Issue: 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100216


Janczak, D., Walendziuk, W., Sadowski, M., Zankiewicz, A., Konopko, K. and Idzkowski, A. (2022). Accuracy Analysis of the Indoor Location System Based on Bluetooth Low-Energy RSSI Measurements. Energies. Vol. 15, Issue: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238832

Coleman, D. D. and Westcott, D. A. (2018). CWNA: Certified Wireless Network Administrator Study Guide: Exam CWNA-10X. 5th ed. 2018, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 9781119549406.

Bor, M., Vidler, J. and Roedig, U. (2016). “LoRa for the Internet of Things”. Proc. of the 2016 Int. Conf. on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN '16). Junction Publishing, USA, pp. 361–366. https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/77615

Kaiwartya, O., Abdullah, A., Cao, Y., Altameem, A., Prasad, M., Lin, C. and Liu, X. (2016). Internet of vehicles: motivation, layered architecture, network model, challenges, and future aspects. IEEE Access, Vol. 4, pp. 5356-5373. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2603219

Oestges, C. and Quitin, F. (2021). Inclusive Radio Communications for 5G and Beyond. 1st ed. Academic Press. ISBN: 9780128205815

Seybold, J.S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 978-0-471-65596-1.

Rappaport, T.S. (2002). Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall Press.

Shang, F., Su, W., Wang, Q., Gao, H. and Fu, Q. (2014). A Location Estimation Algorithm Based on RSSI Vector Similarity Degree. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. Vol. 10, Issue: 8, pp. 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/371350

Aremice, G.A, Miry, A.H. and Salman, T.M (2023). Vehicle Black Box Implementation For Internet Of Vehicles Based Long Range Technology. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development (JEASD). Vol. 27, Issue: 2, pp. 245-255. https://doi.org/10.31272/jeasd.27.2.8


Key Dates



How to Cite

OPTIMAL LONG-RANGE-WIDE-AREA-NETWORK PARAMETERS CONFIGURATION FOR INTERNET OF VEHICLES APPLICATIONS IN SUBURBAN ENVIRONMENTS. (2023). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 27(6), 754-770. https://doi.org/10.31272/jeasd.27.6.7

Similar Articles

1-10 of 1096

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.