Hardness Removal by A Continuous Flow Electrochemical Reactor from Different Types of Water





Aluminum, electrocoagulation, Hardness, Reverse osmosis rejected water, River water


The present study focuses on the technique of hardness removal by using a novel reactor performing an electrocoagulation (EC) process. The variation of alkalinity is also recorded. Continuous flow experiments were conducted for Total Hardness (TH) removal using a transparent plastic reactor using aluminum plate electrodes that have holes so that the water flows through the plates in a zigzag way. The influence of various operating parameters such as the number of plates (two and four), flow rate (600, 1000 L/h), and water type (Tigris River & rejected water from Reverse Osmosis system RO) was investigated. The results showed that an increase in the number of electrodes led to an increase in the total hardness removal efficiency.  In addition, the increase in the flow rate led to a decrease in the removal efficiency. For the rejected RO water type, the highest hardness removal rate was 16.16% for 4 plates electrodes and 600 L/h flow rate while for the river water was 29% for 4 plates electrodes and 1000 L/h.


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Hardness Removal by A Continuous Flow Electrochemical Reactor from Different Types of Water. (2024). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 28(4), 428-438. https://doi.org/10.31272/jeasd.28.4.2

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