• Haitham Saeed Building and Construction Technology Engineering Department, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq




Calcium chloride, accelerators, concrete admixtures, early strength


For several decades, calcium chloride has been widely used as a cheap and effective accelerator. Calcium chloride is remarkably decreasing the initial and final setting times of concrete.  It is mainly used at low-temperature concreting because it allows for earlier finishing and reduces the effects of water freezing inside fresh concrete. The use of calcium chloride in reinforced concrete has been decreased after identifying its effect on reinforcement corrosion.  However, calcium chloride is still widely used in ordinary concrete and some reinforced concrete in specific proportions. This paper reviews the most important mechanical and chemical effects of calcium chloride on concrete mixtures, its effects on reinforcement corrosion, the conditions of its use, and its mechanism of action. This review study highlights the need for a detailed study to verify calcium chloride’s exact role in reinforcement corrosion and the maximum permissible limits for its use in reinforced concrete. In addition, there is a need to study the compatibility of calcium chloride with other concrete admixtures.


Ramachandran, V. S., (1978). Calcium chloride in concrete - applications and ambiguities. National Research Council of Canada, Division of Building Research, Ottawa, Ont., Canada KIA OR6. https://doi.org/10.1139/l78-025

Fletcher, KE., (1971). The performance in concrete of admixtures with accelerating, retarding and water-reducing properties. Concr. J, 5:175–9. https://trid.trb.org/view/25519

The American Concrete Institute, Committee Report ACI 306R-16 (2016). Guide to Cold Weather Concreting.

EN 934-2, (2001). Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 2: Concrete admixtures –Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling, Brussels, Belgium.

Mather, B., (1994). Chemical admixtures, in Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, Eds. P. Klieger and J. F. Lamond, ASTM Sp. Tech. Publ. No. 169C, pp. 491–9 (Detroit, Michigan)

Kothari A., Habermehl-Cwirzen K., Hedlund H., and Cwirzen A., (2020), A Review of the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Ecological Concretes in a Cold Climate in Comparison to Standard Ordinary Portland Cement-Based Concrete. Materials (Basel), 13(16):3467. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163467

Clayton, M., (2020). The Role of Calcium Chloride in Concrete. The constructer. [Available from: https://ccsconcretedriveways.com/the-role-of-calcium-in-concrete/]

Bentz, D. P., Zunino, F., and Lootens, D., (2016). Chemical vs. Physical Acceleration of Cement Hydration. Mater. Struct. 38 (11): PMID: 28077884; PMCID: PMC5220402. pp.37-44 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5220402/

Ramachandran, V. S., (1995). Concrete Admixtures Handbook. Properties, Science and Technology, Chapter 3, 2nd Edition, Noyes Publications, USA, pp. 860-862. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-081551373-5.50002-7.

Rosenberg, A.M., (1964). Study of the Mechanism through which Calcium Chloride Accelerates the Sat of Portland Cement. A.C.I. Journal V. 61m pp. 1261-1270. https://doi.org/10.14359/7826

Noel, P., Rixom, M.R., Daniel, P., and Carol G. (1999). Chemical Admixtures for Concrete. CRC Press; 3rd edition, p456.

Odeyemi, S. O., Anifowose, M. A., Oyeleke, M. O., Adeyemi, A. O., and Bakare, S. B., (2015) Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Produced from Three Brands of Nigerian Cement. American Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2-3: pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajce.s.2015030203.11

Camapanale, C., Massarelli, C., Savino, I., Locaputo, V. and Uricchio, V. F., (2020). Effects of Different Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Fresh Concrete. International. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1212; pp. 2-26. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/986567

Salain, I., (2019). Using calcium chloride as an accelerator for Portland pozzolan cement concrete compressive strength development, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 615 012016 IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/615/1/012016

Neville AM., (2011). Properties of concrete. 5th ed. Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited

Bruce, R., Thulane, V., Sanele, R., Mbingo, and Shongwe, M., (2022). The Effect of Calcium Chloride Admixture on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Blocks. J. of Agricultural Science and Engineering Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 30-35. http://www.aiscience.org/journal/jase

Benjamin, F. , John, L. and Brian, A. (2014). Field Considerations for Calcium Chloride Modification of Soil-Cement. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 26(1) https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000780

Williams, C. K., Al Hatali, E. M. A. M., and Al Ajmi, N. S., (2020). A Study on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with Calcium Chloride. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET). Volume: 07 Issue: 08.160-164. https://www.irjet.net/archives/V7/i8/IRJET-V71825.pdf.

M. Lawrence, M. H.E. Vivian, (1960). The action of calcium chloride on mortar and concrete, Aust. J. Appl. Sci. 11 (4) pp. 490-498.

Qiao, C., Suraneni, P., Chang, M.T., and Weiss J. (2017), The influence of calcium chloride on flexural strength of cement-based materials, Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, Maastricht, Netherlands, pp. 2041-2048. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59471-2_233

Peter, C., Hewlett and Martin L., (2017). Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Butterworth-Heinemann. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-6256-7.X5007-3

Prasath, K. S., Tamilselvan, T., and Manobala, R. (2019). Experimental investigation on mechanical and durability properties of concrete incorporated with quarry dust. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 6 (1), pp. 1610-1614. https://www.irjet.net/archives/V6/i1/IRJET-V6I1301.pdf

Hewlett, P. C., (1998). Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Chapter 15, 4th Edition, Arnold, London, pp. 877-883.

Smith, S.H., Qiao, C., Suraneni, P., Kurtis, K.E., and Weiss, W.J., (2019). Service-life of concrete in freeze thaw environments: Critical degree of saturation and calcium oxychloride formation, Cem. Concr. Res. 122, pp.93-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2019.04.014

Shi, X., Fay, L., Peterson, M.M, and Yang, Z., (2010). Freeze-thaw damage and chemical change of a Portland cement concrete in the presence of diluted deicers, Mater. Struct. 43, pp. 933- 946. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-009-9557-0

Sakai, K., Watanabe, H., Nomaci, H., and Hamabe. (1991). Preventing freezing of fresh concrete, Concrete International, 13, No. 3, pp. 26–30.

Shideler, J. J., (1952). Calcium chloride in concrete, J. Amer. Concr. Inst., 48, pp. 537–59. https://trid.trb.org/view/95728

The American Concrete Institute, (2004). Committee Report ACI 212.3R-04, Chemical Admixtures for Concrete.

Charles, J., Edel, R., Timothy, A., and Ara, A., (1997). Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete, Special Report 97-26, US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and development Center, National Technical Information Service, USA, 22 pp.


Farrington, S. A. and Christensen, B. J., (2003). The Use of Chemical Admixtures to Facilitate Placement of Concrete at Freezing Temperatures, Proceedings from Seventh CANMET/ACI International Conference on Superplasticizers and Other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete (Edited by V M Malhotra), ACI International SP-217-5, USA, pp. 71-85. https://doi.org/10.14359/12906

Qiao, C., Suraneni, P., and Weiss, J., (2018). Phase diagram and volume change of the Ca(OH)2-CaCl2- H2O system for varying Ca(OH)2/CaCl2 molar ratios, J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 30 (2) 04017281. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002145.

PCI Design Handbook Precast and Prestressed concrete. 7th edition. (2010). ISBN 978-0-937040-87-4

Doug B., (2020). A guide to concrete efflorescence. Concrete network https://www.concretenetwork.com/doug_bannister/efflorescence.htm

Mohammed, T. U., Ahmed, T., Apurbo, S. M., Mallick, T. A., Shahriar, F., Munim, A., and Awal, M. A., (2017). Influence of chemical admixtures on fresh and hardened properties of prolonged mixed concrete. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9187627

Ghazy, A., Bassuoni, M.T., (2017). Resistance of concrete to different exposures with chloride-based salts, Cem. Concr. Res. 101, pp. 144-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.09.001.

Pruckner, F. and Gjørv, O.E., (2004). Effect of CaCl2 and NaCl additions on concrete corrosivity. Cement and Concrete Research 34, pp. 1209 – 1217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.12.015

Pfeifer, D. W., Landgren, J. R., and Perenchio, W., (1986). Concrete, Chlorides, Cover and Corrosion. PCI Journal, V. 31, No. 4 (July-August). https://doi.org/10.15554/pcij.07011986.42.53

Lobry Debruyn CA., (1965). Corrosion of reinforcement of concrete, In: Wexham Springs meeting, RILEM Technical Committee; 6–9 Sep. pp. 9–13, 13–9 (available from BCA, UK).

Ahmad, S., (2003). Reinforcement corrosion in concrete structures, its monitoring and service life prediction. a review, Cem. Concr. Comp. 25 (4-5) pp. 459-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(02)00086-0

Chen, F., Li, C., Baji, H. and Ma, B. (2020). Quantification of non-uniform distribution and growth of corrosion products at steel-concrete interface. Constr. Build. Mater. 237, 117610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117610

ACI committee, (2019) American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, ACI 318-19.

U.A. Birnin-Yauri, U.A., and Garba, S., (2006). The effect and mechanism of chloride ion attack on portland cement concrete and the structural steel reinforcement, IFE J. Sci. 8 (2), pp.131-134. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijs.v8i2.32211

Shi, C., (2001). Formation and stability of 3CaO・CaCl2・12H2O, Cem. Concr. Res. 31 pp. 1373- 1375. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00576-2.

American Society of Concrete Contractors (ASCC) (2020). Position Statement #31—Acceptable Use of Calcium Chloride in Concrete. https://ascconline.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=_vyYETnNpQI%3D&tabid=144&portalid=3&mid=746

Obinna, O. and Nemkumar, B. (2022). The Influence of CaCl2-Blended Acrylic Polymer on Steel Rebar Corrosion and Acid Attack Resistance of Mortar. Corrosion and Materials Degradation 3(1):pp. 160-177, https://doi.org/10.3390/cmd3010009

Berntsson, L., and Chandra, S., (1982). Damage of concrete sleepers by calcium chloride, Cem. Concr.Res. 12, pp. 87-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(82)90102-8

Ramachandran, V. S., Seeley, R. C. and Polomark, G. M. (1984). Free and combined chloride in hydrating cement and cement components. Materials and Structures, 17, 100, pp. 285-289. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02479084

Janotka, I., Krajčí, L., Komloš, K. and Frťalová, D. (1989). Chloride corrosion of steel fiber reinforcement in cement mortar, International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 221-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/0262-5075(89)90102-4.

Simões, T., Costa, H., Dias-Da-Costa, D., and Julio, E. (2017) Influence of fibers on the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete matrixes. Constr. Build. Mater., 137, pp. 548–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.104

Guo, Y., Hu, X., and Lv, J. (2019) Experimental study on the resistance of basalt fiber-reinforced concrete to chloride penetration. Constr. Build. Mater., 223, pp. 142–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.06.211

Onuaguluchi, O., Banthia, N., Gourlay, K. and Minhas, G. (2021) Moisture transport and steel rebar corrosion in repair composites incorporating Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose (NFC). Constr. Build Mater, 309, pp. 125154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.125154

Naidu, G., and Joseph, G., (2022). Corrosion Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete- A Review. Fibers, 10, 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10050038.

Essam, A., Doaa A., Maha R., and Noury, R. (2013). Effect of calcium chloride on the hydration characteristics of ground clay bricks cement pastes. Beni-Suef University J. of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 20-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjbas.2013.09.003

Traetteberg A., Ramachandran VS and Grattan-Bellew PE., (1974). A study of the microstructure and hydration characteristics of tricalcium silicate in the presence of calcium chloride. Cem Concr Res; 4(2), pp. 203–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(74)90133-1

Ramachandran VS., (1972). Interaction of calcium lignosulfonate with tricalcium silicate, hydrated tricalcium silicate and calcium hydroxide. Cem Concr Res; 2(2):179–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(72)90040-3

Monical, J., Villani, C., Farnam, Y., Unal, E., and Weiss, J., (2016). Using low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry to quantify calcium oxychloride formation for cementitious materials in the presence of calcium chloride, Adv. Civ. Eng. Mater. 5 (2) (2016), pp. 142-156. https://doi.org/10.1520/ACEM20150024.

Rodger, S. A. and Double, D. D., (1984). The chemistry of hydration of high alumina cement in the presence of accelerating and retarding admixtures, Cement and Concrete Research, 14, pp. 73-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(84)90082-6

Mathilde, P., Simon, B., Catherine, N., Anne, B., Judit, K., Margie, O. Laurent, S., C´edric, P., and Martin, C. (2022). Synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography investigation of the early hydration of blended cements: A case study on CaCl2-accelerated slag-based blended cements, Construction and Building Materials, V. 321, 126412, ISSN 0950-0618, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.126412.

Brown, P., and Bothem J., (2004). The system CaO-Al2O3-CaCl2-H2O at 23±2 °C and the mechanisms of chloride binding in concrete, Cem. Concr. Res. 34 (9), pp. 1549-1553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.03.011.




Submission Dates

Received 1/12/2022

Accepted 12/2/2023

Published 1/5/2023

How to Cite

Saeed , H. . (2023). A REVIEW STUDY OF THE USE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE IN CONCRETE. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 27(3), 339–349. https://doi.org/10.31272/jeasd.27.3.4