• Ali Abdullah Hasan Civil Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ilham Al-Obaidi Civil Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ali F. Hassoon Electrical Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq



Dairy wastewater, gradient velocity, alum, phosphorus, calcium


In this article, jar and alum technologies were used as treatment materials. Similar synthetic models have been prepared for wastewater from dairy products. The chemical treatment was performed using the jar inspection method. The laboratory temperature, which was between 20-25 degrees Celsius, is a reference in completing the experiments. Experiments have shown that alum can remove phosphorous by up to 95% according to parameters such as the speed of rotation of the oar and the temperature reached in the research. The value of velocity gradient (G) was 1076.915 sec.-1, which represents the potential energy that could make a better crash between particles to achieve an increase in particle size and then settle. This resulted in an optimum aluminum dose equal to 0.5 mg / L at 20 ± 2 ° C. The role of calcium ions in the removal of pollutants has been observed as a catalyst to complete the treatment process, however, it will reduce the aluminum ion concentration necessary to achieve the treatment, it is not possible to risk adding salts over the salinity of water sources to achieve the treatment.


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Submission Dates

Received 08/09/2022

Revised 23/02/2023

Accepted 28/10/2023


How to Cite

Abdullah Hasan, A., Al-Obaidi, I. ., & F. Hassoon, A. . (2023). THE ABILITY OF CALCIUM ION IN THE TREATMENT OF DAIRY WASTEWATER. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 27(6), 783–797.