• Safinaz Binti Saad Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Suhad D. Salman Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Zulkiflle Leman Advanced Engineering Materials and Composites Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Munir Faraj Alkbir Facilities Maintenance Engineering, UniKL Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology (MITEC), Persiaran Sinaran Ilmu, Bandar Seri Alam, 81750 Masai, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia



Sago palm fiber, carbon fiber, hybrid composites, mechanical properties


Natural fibers are potential alternatives to synthetic fibers.  Sago palm is a new type of natural fiber and has the potential same as other existing natural fibers.  In this study, the mechanical properties of sago palm/carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy hybrids were studied.  Impact tests were conducted to study the impact properties of sago palm-carbon fiber-reinforced X hybrid composites.  The hybrid composites contain woven sago palm fiber and carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin produced by the vacuum compaction method. Each sample was prepared with different volume fractions such as 40%, 64%, and 91% of composition sago palm fiber. After the preparation of composite material, mechanical properties tests were studied on the prepared sample. In addition, by using Scanning Electron Microscope Tests, the failure mode is investigated. It can be concluded that 40% of sago palm fiber contains the best impact behavior compared to 64% and 91% of sago palm fiber loading because it’s high in impact resistance.


Faruk, O., Bledzki, A. K., Fink, H. P., and Sain, M. (2012). "Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010," Progress in Polymer Science 37(11), 1552-1596. DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2012.04.003

Salman, S.D." Partial replacement of synthetic fibres by natural fibres in hybrid composites and its effect on monotonic properties" Journal of Industrial Textiles this link is disabled, 2021, 51(2), pp. 258–276.

Gyanaranjan M., Chaitanya P.B., (2009) “Characterization of Hybrid FRP Composites with Hygrothermal Exposure under Varied Ambient Conditions”. National Institute of Technology Rourkela pp. 20-21 Retriveed from:

Haruna V.N., Abdulrahman A.S., Zubairu P.T., Isezuo L.O., Abdulrahman M.A., Onuoha D.C., (2014) “Prospects And Challenges Of Composites In A Developing Country”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9 (7), 1819-6608

Salman, S.D. "Effects of jute fibre content on the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites in structural applications" Defence Technology this link is disabled, 2020, 16(6), pp. 1098–1105.

Salman, S.D."The influence of kenaf contents and stacking sequence on drop-weight impact properties of hybrid laminated composites reinforced polyvinyl butyral composites" 2020, Journal of Industrial Textiles.

Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties, and Processes (2013) Retrieved from

Sgriccia, N., Hawley, M. C., and Misra, M. (2008). "Characterization of natural fiber surfaces and natural fiber composites," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 39(10), 1632-1637.

Sutrisno, W.; Rahayu, M.; Adhika, D.R. Thermal Properties of Sago Fiber-Epoxy Composite. Fibers 2020, 8, 4.

Supu, I.; Jaya, I. Synthesis and Compression Strength Properties of Composite Based on Sago Pulp FiberWaste. IOP Conf. Earth Environ. Sci. 2018,187, 1–6.

Mardin, H. & Wardana, I. & Pratikto, & Suprapto, Wahyono & Kamil, Kusno. (2016). Effect of Sugar Palm Fiber Surface on Interfacial Bonding with Natural Sago Matrix. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016. 1-5.

El-Shekeil, Y. A., Sapuan, S. M., Abdan, K., and Zainudin, E. S. (2012). "Influence of fiber content on the mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites," Materials and Design 40, 299-303.

El-Shekeil, Y. A., Sapuan, S. M., and Algrafi, M. W. (2014). "Effect of fiber loading on mechanical and morphological properties of cocoa pod husk fibers reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites," Materials and Design 64, 330-333.

Saba, N., Jawaid, M., Hakeem, K. R., Paridah, M. T., Khalina, A., and Alothman, O. Y. (2015( Potential of bioenergy production from industrial kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) based on Malaysian perspective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42, 446-459.

Sapuan, S. M., Leenie, A., Harimi, M., and Beng, Y. K. (2006). "Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites," Materials and Design 27(8), 689-693.




Submission Dates

Received 6/5/2022 

Accepted 31/10/2022 

Published 4/11/2022

How to Cite

Binti Saad, S. ., Salman, S. D., Leman, Z. ., & Faraj Alkbir, M. . (2022). CHARACTERIZATION OF SAGO PALM-CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY HYBRID COMPOSITES. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 26(6), 23–29.