• Gaith M. Hamdi Hamdi Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University Author
  • Mohammed Nsaif Abbas Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University Author
  • Seroor Atalah Khaleefa Ali Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University Author



Agricultural waste, Bioethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fermentation


The importance of this research lies in keeping pace with the global trend to diversify energy sources and reduce climate change and air pollution by shedding light on how to benefit from agricultural waste by using it as a raw material for the production of bioethanol, which is one of the most important types of renewable fuels. This review highlighted the; ways of converting agricultural and fruit waste into bioethanol and its environmental and economic benefits-including adding it to gasoline used as car fuel in different proportions, as it works to raise the octane number of gasoline and improve its quality, thus reducing its production costs and reducing gas emissions from vehicle exhaust. In addition, the global production of bio-ethanol was reviewed and is expected to reach it by the end of 2023. It also highlighted the results of several studies that dealt with the properties and uses of ethanol and the best agricultural wastes used for this purpose. It is suggested to focus on the agricultural waste in Iraq, such as rice husks, in terms of cost and conditions for improvement to increase bio-ethanol production using fermentation processes.


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How to Cite

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE: A REVIEW. (2024). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 28(02), 233-252.