• Hiba A. Mohammed Environmental Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq Author
  • Dawood E. Sachit Environmental Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq Author
  • Mustafa Al-Furaiji Environment and Water Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq Author



Backwashing, Fouling, membranes, pretreatment


Reverse osmosis is one of the most prevalent methods of generating potable water owing to its low power usage, excellent rates of contaminant removal, simple design, large output capacity, and much cheaper initial and maintenance costs than comparable alternatives. In this review, the most important published research related to the reverse osmosis process was reviewed. It was found that the majority of reported studies were related to using the reverse osmosis process for water desalination and wastewater treatment. Research has proven that the reverse osmosis process is a very effective method for desalinating water and treating industrial effluent containing heavy metals, organics, and other pollutants. Fouling was found to be one of the greatest obstacles encountered by the reverse osmosis method in water treatment, which raises operating costs due to the need for frequent cleaning, reduces the membrane's lifespan, and reduces the permeate flux. In general, microfiltration/ultrafiltration pretreatment and backwashing were among the most effective strategies suggested by researchers to reduce fouling and ensure the longevity and proper operation of the system.


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How to Cite

APPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES OF THE REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE PROCESS: A REVIEW. (2023). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 27(5), 630-646.

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