A REVIEW ON SOIL CONTAMINATION SOURCES: IMPACT ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES AND REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES
Keywords:Hydrocarbon, industrial effluents, petroleum contamination, soil treatment
Soil contamination produced by improper management of various petroleum and industrial products causes potential risks to the environment and soil engineering properties. Such contamination causes environmental deterioration and adversely affects soil engineering performance, altering almost all geotechnical properties. Several remediation techniques have been proposed to decontaminate the polluted soils. Choosing the best technique depends on both the energy consumption during operation and the treatment efficiency. The lack of a universally appropriate treatment method and the unavoidable expansion of contaminated land have justified the sake of reviewing the behavior of contaminated soils to develop both environmentally and geotechnically suitable soils for construction projects. The present paper reviewed some soil contamination sources’ backgrounds, effects, and remediation methods. Soils influenced by petroleum hydrocarbons and industrial effluents were evaluated. According to the reviewed studies, contaminants are evidenced to have a negative impact on soils' geotechnical characteristics by increasing settlement and swelling, reducing shear strength, and decreasing permeability. The need to restore the engineering characteristics of soils suggest the necessity to use remediation or stabilization technique. The electrochemical method, bioremediation, and stabilizing by additives are revealed to be efficient in improving the engineering properties and performance of contaminated soils.
A. Kabata-Pendias, Trace elements in soils and plants, 4th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420039900.ch5
S. Pascucci, Soil Contamination. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 2011.
A. C. Payatakes, "Dynamics of Oil Ganglia During Immiscible Displacement in Water-Wet Porous Media," Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 14, pp. 365-393, 1982. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.002053
S. Singh, R. Srivastava, and S. John, "Studies on soil contamination due to used motor oil and its remediation," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 46, pp. 1077-1083, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1139/t09-047.
A. A. Salim, Z.B. Mohammed, and M.Y.Fattah, "Influence of adding plant fly ash on the geotechnical properties and pollution of sanitary landfill soil," Engineering and Technology Journal, vol. 40, pp.1385-1398, 2022. https://doi.org/10.30684/etj.v40i11.1136.
H.H.Bakir, F.H. Rahil, M.Y. Fattah, and M.A.Al-Neami, "Effect of soil consistency on flow characteristics of acids through cohesive soils," Engineering and Technology Journal, vol. 26(10) , 2008.
M. Khamehchiyan, A. H. Charkhabi, and M. Tajik, "Effects of crude oil contamination on geotechnical properties of clayey and sandy soils," Engineering geology, vol. 89, pp. 220-229, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.10.009
I. B. Gratchev and I. Towhata, "Effects of acidic contamination on the geotechnical properties of marine soils in Japan," in The Nineteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320383.2020.1719973
M. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, A. Yadav, and V. Rawat, "Source and control of hydrocarbon pollution," in Hydrocarbon Pollution and its Effect on the Environment, ed: IntechOpen, 2019, p. 9. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.86487
R. M. Harrison, Pollution: causes, effects and control, 4th ed. UK: Royal society of chemistry, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0269-7491(97)83364-7
V. K. Puri, "Geotechnical aspects of oil-contaminated sands," Soil and Sediment Contamination, vol. 9, pp. 359-374, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1080/10588330091134301
M. Gupta and R. Srivastava, "Evaluation of engineering properties of oil-contaminated soils," Journal of the Institution of Engineers. India. Civil Engineering Division, vol. 90, pp. 37-42, 2010.
Z. A. Rahman, U. Hamzah, M. R. Taha, N. S. Ithnain, and N. Ahmad, "Influence of oil contamination on geotechnical properties of basaltic residual soil," American journal of applied sciences, vol. 7, pp. 954, 2010. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2010.954.961
Y. Jia, Q. Wu, H. Shang, Z. N. Yang, and H. Shan, "The influence of oil contamination on the geotechnical properties of coastal sediments in the Yellow River Delta, China," Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 70, pp. 517-525, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-011-0349-8
R. M. Abousnina, A. Manalo, J. Shiau, and W. Lokuge, "Effects of light crude oil contamination on the physical and mechanical properties of fine sand," Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, vol. 24, pp. 833-845, 2015. Effects of light crude oil contamination on the physical and mechanical properties of fine sand
O. O. Ojuri and G. G. Epe, "Strength and leaching characteristics of crude oil contaminated sandy soil stabilized with sawdust ash-cement," in Geo-Chicago 2016, ed, 2016, pp. 582-590. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784480168.057
G. Harsh, A. Patel, B. Himanshu, and P. Tiwari, "Effect of rate of crude oil contamination on index properties and engineering properties of clays and sands," Indian J Sci Technol, vol. 9, pp. 1-4, 2016. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i30/99193
A. Mohammadi, T. Ebadi, and A. Eslami, "Shear strength behavior of crude oil contaminated sand-concrete interface," Geomechanics & engineering, vol. 12, pp. 211-221, 2017. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2017.12.2.211
A. Hosseini and A. Hajiani Boushehrian, "Laboratory and numerical study of the behavior of circular footing resting on sandy soils contaminated with oil under cyclic loading," Scientia Iranica, vol. 26, pp. 3219-3232, 2019.
C. Kererat, "Effect of oil-contamination and water saturation on the bearing capacity and shear strength parameters of silty sandy soil," Engineering Geology, vol. 257, p. 105138, 2019. https://doi.org/10.24200/sci.2018.5427.1267
M. Nazari Heris, S. Aghajani, M. Hajialilue-Bonab, and H. Vafaei Molamahmood, "Effects of lead and gasoline contamination on geotechnical properties of clayey soils," Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, vol. 29, pp. 340-354, 2020.
M. Ahmadi, T. Ebadi, and R. Maknoon, "Effects of crude oil contamination on geotechnical properties of sand-kaolinite mixtures," Engineering Geology, vol. 283, p. 106021, 2021.
G. Fazeli, S. Lotfollahi, P. Bakhtiari, and F. Farrokhi, "Bearing capacity and geotechnical properties of sandy soil substrate contaminated with oil derivatives (diesel fuel and kerosene)," Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, vol. 54, 2021.
F. Hanaei, M. S. Sarmadi, M. Rezaee, and A. Rahmani, "Experimental investigation of the effects of gas oil and benzene on the geotechnical properties of sandy soils," Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, vol. 6, pp. 1-8, 2021.
M. Ostovar, R. Ghiassi, M. J. Mehdizadeh, and N. Shariatmadari, "Effects of crude oil on geotechnical specification of sandy soils," Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, vol. 30, pp. 58-73, 2021.
F. H. M. Portelinha, N. De Souza Correia, I. Santos Mendes, and J. W. B. D. Silva, "Geotechnical Properties and Microstructure of a Diesel Contaminated Lateritic Soil Treated with Lime," Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, vol. 30, pp. 838-861, 2021.
L. Liu, L. Gudmundsson, M. Hauser, D. Qin, S. Li, and S. I. Seneviratne, "Soil moisture dominates dryness stress on ecosystem production globally," Nature Communications, vol. 11, p. 4892, 2020/09/29 2020.
A. Salimnezhad, H. Soltani-Jigheh, and A. A. Soorki, "Effects of oil contamination and bioremediation on geotechnical properties of highly plastic clayey soil," Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 13, pp. 653-670, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.05.015
Y. Deng, X. Yue, S. Liu, Y. Chen, and D. Zhang, "Hydraulic conductivity of cement-stabilized marine clay with metakaolin and its correlation with pore size distribution," Engineering Geology, vol. 193, pp. 146-152, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.04.018
C. Yu, R. Liao, C. Zhu, X. Cai, and J. Ma, "Test on the stabilization of oil-contaminated Wenzhou clay by cement," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2018, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9675479
 I. I. Akinwumi, C. A. Booth, D. Diwa, and P. Mills, "Cement stabilisation of crude-oil-contaminated soil," Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 169, pp. 336-345, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeen.15.00108
Y.-G. Chen, L.-Y. Jia, W.-M. Ye, B. Chen, and Y.-J. Cui, "Advances in experimental investigation on hydraulic fracturing behavior of bentonite-based materials used for HLW disposal," Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 75, pp. 1-14, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5644-z
C. W. Jones, "Stabilization of expansive clay with hydrated lime and with Portland cement," Highway Research Board Bulletin, 1958.
J. Stegemann and Q. Zhou, "Development of process envelopes for cement-based stabilisation/solidification of metal treatment filtercakes," Waste management and the environment IV, WIT transactions on ecology and the environment, vol. 109, pp. 21-30, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2495/wm080031
R. B. Kogbara, Y. Yi, and A. Al-Tabbaa, "Process envelopes for stabilisation/solidification of contaminated soil using lime–slag blend," Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 18, pp. 1286-1296, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0480-x
A. M. Nasr, "Utilisation of oil-contaminated sand stabilised with cement kiln dust in the construction of rural roads," International Journal of Pavement Engineering, vol. 15, pp. 889-905, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2014.893321
C. Yu, J. Liu, J. Ma, and X. Yu, "Study on transport and transformation of contaminant through layered soil with large deformation," Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, pp. 12764-12779, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1325-7
E. K. Mitter, J. J. Germida, and J. R. de Freitas, "Impact of diesel and biodiesel contamination on soil microbial community activity and structure," Scientific reports, vol. 11, pp. 1-14, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89637-y
H. Safehian, A. M. Rajabi, and H. Ghasemzadeh, "Effect of diesel-contamination on geotechnical properties of illite soil," engineering geology, vol. 241, pp. 55-63, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.04.020
S. Taheri, T. Ebadi, R. Maknoon, and M. Amiri, "Predicting variations in the permeability and strength parameters of a sand-bentonite mixture (SBM) contaminated simultaneously with lead (II) and diesel," Applied Clay Science, vol. 157, pp. 102-110, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2018.01.007
N. d. S. Correia, F. H. M. Portelinha, I. S. Mendes, and J. W. B. da Silva, "Lime treatment of a diesel-contaminated coarse-grained soil for reuse in geotechnical applications," International Journal of Geo-Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 1-15, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40703-020-00115-2
D. Izdebska-Mucha and J. Trzciński, "Effects of petroleum pollution on clay soil microstructure," Geologija vol. 50, pp. 69–75, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1637-x
J. Trzciński, D. J. Williams, and M. S. Żbik, "Can hydrocarbon contamination influence clay soil grain size composition?," Applied Clay Science, vol. 109, pp. 49-54, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2015.03.014
H. Ghasemzadeh and M. Tabaiyan, "The effect of diesel fuel pollution on the efficiency of soil stabilization method," Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 475-484, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-016-0121-8
C. E. Hernández-Mendoza, P. García Ramírez, and O. Chávez Alegría, "Geotechnical Evaluation of Diesel Contaminated Clayey Soil," Applied Sciences, vol. 11, p. 6451, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146451
E. Khosravi, H. Ghasemzadeh, M. R. Sabour, and H. Yazdani, "Geotechnical properties of gas oil-contaminated kaolinite," Engineering Geology, vol. 166, pp. 11-16, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.08.004
A. Yazdi and E. Sharifi Teshnizi, "Effects of contamination with gasoline on engineering properties of fine-grained silty soils with an emphasis on the duration of exposure," SN Applied Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 1-24, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-021-04637-x
A. Hajiani Boushehrian, "Contamination Effects on the Bearing Capacity of Circular Shallow Foundation Rested on Sand," Geotechnical Geology, vol. 17, pp. 471-478, 2021.
 Y. Son, M. Oh, and S. Lee, "Influence of diesel fuel contamination on the electrical properties of unsaturated soil at a low frequency range of 100 Hz–10 MHz," Environmental geology, vol. 58, pp. 1341-1348, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1637-x
H. D. Al-Hamaiedh and O. N. Maaitah, "Treatment of oil polluted soil using electrochemical method," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 50, pp. 105-110, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2011.01.010
T. Ijimdiya, "The effects of oil contamination on the consolidation properties of lateritic soil," Development and Applications of Oceanic Engineering (DAOE), vol. 2, pp. 53-59, 2013. https://doi.org/10.4236/gm.2011.13011
A. Pandey and Y. Bind, "Effects of oil contamination on geotechnical properties of alluvial soil Naini, Allahabad," International Journal of innovative Technology and exploring Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 39-42, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2020.11.011
B. Gidudu and E. M. N. Chirwa, "The combined application of a high voltage, low electrode spacing, and biosurfactants enhances the bio-electrokinetic remediation of petroleum contaminated soil," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 276, p. 122745, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122745
B. Sunil, S. Shrihari, and S. Nayak, "Shear strength characteristics and chemical characteristics of leachate-contaminated lateritic soil," Engineering Geology, vol. 106, pp. 20-25, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2008.12.011
S. A. Adebisi and K. A. Fayemiwo, "Pollution of Ibadan soil by industrial effluents," New York Science Journal, vol. 3, pp. 37-41, 2010.
S. Naeini and M. Jahanfar, "Effect of salt solution and plasticity index on undrain shear strength of clays," International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 92-96, 2011.
A. K. Nazir, "Effect of motor oil contamination on geotechnical properties of over consolidated clay," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 50, pp. 331-335, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2011.05.002
M. Olgun and M. Yıldız, "Effect of organic fluids on the geotechnical behavior of a highly plastic clayey soil," Applied Clay Science, vol. 48, pp. 615-621, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2010.03.015
A. Patel, "Study of Geotechnical properties of black cotton soil contaminated by castor oil and stabilization of contaminated soil by sawdust," in National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, 2011, pp. 13-14.
K. R. Reddy, H. Hettiarachchi, J. Gangathulasi, and J. E. Bogner, "Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation," Waste Management, vol. 31, pp. 2275-2286, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.06.002
B. Sunil, S. Nayak, and S. Shrihari, "Effect of pH on the geotechnical properties of laterite," Engineering geology, vol. 85, pp. 197-203, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.09.039
P. K. Vaddi, T. B. Tilak, S. R. Prasad, and P. V. Padma, "Effects of textile effluent on the geotechnical properties of expansive soil," International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), vol. 6, pp. 31-41, 2015.
K. Chethan, "The effect of industrial textile effluent interaction with both laterite soil and expansive soil," International journal of advance research and development, vol. 2, pp. 19-25, 2017.
A. R. Choudhury, Textile preparation and dyeing: Science publishers, 2006.
M. I. Khan, M. Irfan, M. Aziz, and A. H. Khan, "Geotechnical characteristics of effluent contaminated cohesive soils," Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, vol. 25, pp. 75-82, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3846/16486897.2016.1210155
K. Terzaghi and R. B. Peck, "Soil Mechanics," Engineering Practice. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511815553.002
A. N. Rao and P. Indiramma, "Effect Of Textile Effluent On Geotechnical Properties Of black Cotton Soil," 2009.
K. M. Rao, V. T. Rao, and G. R. Babu, "On interaction of a clayey soil with textile dye waste," Electron J Geotech Eng, vol. 13, pp. 1-18, 2008. https://doi.org/10.33140/amse/02/01/16
T. Fawole and O. Ibikunle, "Assessment of effect of cassava waste water on geotechnical properties of soil," International journal of engineering research and technology (IJERT), vol. 8, pp. 943-949, 2019. https://doi.org/10.17577/ijertv8is070383
J. K. R, P. L. Agnes L, M. V, and K. S, "Dye effluent contaminated sub-grade," International Journal of Research and Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 60-62, 2017.
R. Shivaraju, B. Ravishankar, M. K. KV, and H. Nanda, "Effect of silk dyeing alkali effluent on the compaction and strength behaviour of expansive black cotton soil," IOSR Journal of mechanical and civil engineering, vol. 14, pp. 01-05, 2017.
T. Karthika, S. Shalini, P. Kothai, and K. Arumugam, "Impact of dyeing industry effluents on geotechnical properties of soil," in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021, p. 012233. Impact of dyeing industry effluents on geotechnical properties of soil.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Sahar AL-khyat, Dalia Munaff Naji; Huda T. Hamad; Onyeaka, Helen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.