• Siham Idan Salih Highway and Transportation Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq Author https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1901-1530
  • Alvaro Garcia Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre (NTEC), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK Author
  • J. Norambuena Contreras Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre (NTEC), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK Author




Porous pavements, Microcapsules, Induction Heating, Weibull distribution, Wöhler curve, probability for breaking, self-healing


Asphalt concrete is widely known to be a self-healing material, by repeated loading the micro-cracks have appearing and disappeared when both faces of a fissure touch. This process is applied until the crack is completely gone and the material regains its prior resistance.  In this study, two strategies are presented to boost of healing rate and applied in porous asphalt, one of them is induction heating.  This method is used by mixing 1.1% of steel wool fiber to speed up this phenome, with 20mm aggregate size for porous asphalt mixture and 21% air voids content.  Another approach is self-healing by 0.5% encapsulated agents using. These capsulate are incorporated within the asphalt mixture, then the capsules break when subjected to repeating loading on the asphalt surface. It has been discovered that there is a moment in the lifespan of an asphalt road where the capsules or induction heating applied can successfully self-heal the existing crack damage.


- XU, S., LIU, X., TABAKOVIĆ, A. & SCHLANGEN, E. (2019). Investigation of the potential use of calcium alginate capsules for self-healing in porous asphalt concrete. Materials, 12, 168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.137

- PLATI, C. (2019). Sustainability factors in pavement materials, design, and preservation strategies: A literature review. Construction and Building Materials, 211, 539-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.242

- GARCÍA, Á. (2012). Self-healing of open cracks in asphalt mastic. Fuel, 93, 264-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.09.009

- GARCÍA, A., NORAMBUENA-CONTRERAS, J., BUENO, M. & PARTL, M. N. (2015). Single and multiple healing of porous and dense asphalt concrete. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 26, 425-433. https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X14529029

- GARCIA, A., SALIH, S. & GÓMEZ-MEIJIDE, B. (2020). Optimum moment to heal cracks in asphalt roads by means electromagnetic induction. Construction and Building Materials, 238, 117627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117627

- QIU, J. (2008). Self healing of asphalt mixes: literature review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.137

- PAULI, A. T. 2014. Chemomechanics of damage accumulation and damage-recovery healing in bituminous asphalt binders. https://doi.org/10.4233/uuid:c2b58634-00a4-4edd-906d-190098fed6e4

- QIU, J. (2012). Self healing of asphalt mixtures: towards a better understanding of the mechanism. http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:476803db-e4aa-4dcf-926a-df9980a96ba2

- BRANTHAVER, J. F., PETERSEN, J., ROBERTSON, R., DUVALL, J., KIM, S., HARNSBERGER, P., MILL, T., ENSLEY, E., BARBOUR, F. & SCHARBRON, J. (1993). Binder characterization and evaluation. Volume 2: Chemistry.


- MAIA, M. M., DINIS-ALMEIDA, M. & MARTINHO, F. C. (2021). The influence of the affinity between aggregate and bitumen on the mechanical performance properties of asphalt mixtures. Materials, 14, 6452. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216452

- AYAR, P., MORENO-NAVARRO, F. & RUBIO-GÁMEZ, M. C. (2016). The healing capability of asphalt pavements: a state of the art review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113, 28-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.034

- LIU, K., TONG, J., FU, C., XU, P., WANG, F. & PANG, H. (2022). Calculative method of effective induction heating depth and its influences on induction healing of dense-graded asphalt pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 359, 12 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.12938888

- GARCÍA, A., BUENO, M., NORAMBUENA-CONTRERAS, J. & PARTL, M. N. (2013). Induction healing of dense asphalt concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 49, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17219-173

- SALIH, S. I. (2020). Self-healing of cyclic loading damage in asphalt mixtures. University of Nottingham. https://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/60663

- AL-MANSOORI, T., NORAMBUENA-CONTRERAS, J. & GARCIA, A. (2018)a. Effect of capsule addition and healing temperature on the self-healing potential of asphalt mixtures. Materials and Structures, 51, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-018-1172-5

- SHIRZAD, S., HASSAN, M. M., AGUIRRE, M. A., MOHAMMAD, L. N. & DALY, W. H.( 2016). Evaluation of sunflower oil as a rejuvenator and its microencapsulation as a healing agent. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28, 04016116. http://worldcat.org/issn/08991561

- LI, J., JI, X., TANG, Z., HU, Y. & HUA, W. (2022). Preparation and evaluation of self‐healing microcapsules for asphalt based on response surface optimization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 139, 51430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.123179

- NORAMBUENA-CONTRERAS, J., YALCIN, E., GARCIA, A., AL-MANSOORI, T., YILMAZ, M. & HUDSON-GRIFFITHS, R. (2018). Effect of mixing and ageing on the mechanical and self-healing properties of asphalt mixtures containing polymeric capsules. Construction and Building Materials, 175, 254-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.153

- SUN, D., SUN, G., ZHU, X., GUARIN, A., LI, B., DAI, Z. & LING, J. (2018). A comprehensive review on self-healing of asphalt materials: Mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement. Advances in colloid and interface science, 256, 65-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2018.05.003

- MICAELO, R., AL-MANSOORI, T. & GARCIA, A. 2016. Study of the mechanical properties and self-healing ability of asphalt mixture containing calcium-alginate capsules. Construction and Building Materials, 123, 734-744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.07.095

- A.K. Apeagyei, J. R. A. Grenfell, G. D. Airey, (2014), Moisture-induced strength degradation of aggregate–asphalt mastic bonds, Road Materials and Pavement Design. Volume 15, 2014 - Issue sup1: Papers from the 89th Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2014.927951

- MENOZZI, A., GARCIA, A., PARTL, M. N., TEBALDI, G. & SCHUETZ, P. (2015). Induction healing of fatigue damage in asphalt test samples. Construction and Building Materials, 74, 162-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.034

- GÓMEZ-MEIJIDE, B., AJAM, H., LASTRA-GONZÁLEZ, P. & GARCIA, A. (2016). Effect of air voids content on asphalt self-healing via induction and infrared heating. Construction and Building Materials, 126, 957-966. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.115

- SALIH, S., GÓMEZ-MEIJIDE, B., ABOUFOUL, M. & GARCIA, A. (2018). Effect of porosity on infrared healing of fatigue damage in asphalt. Construction and Building Materials, 167, 716-725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.065

- AL-MANSOORI, T., MICAELO, R., ARTAMENDI, I., NORAMBUENA-CONTRERAS, J. & GARCIA, A. (2017). Microcapsules for self-healing of asphalt mixture without compromising mechanical performance. Construction and Building Materials, 155, 1091-1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.137

- AL-MANSOORI, T., NORAMBUENA-CONTRERAS, J., MICAELO, R. & GARCIA, A. (2018)b. Self-healing of asphalt mastic by the action of polymeric capsules containing rejuvenators. Construction and building materials, 161, 330-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.(2017).11.125


Key Dates



How to Cite

MICROCAPSULES AND INDUCTION HEATING: TWO METHODS FOR CLOSING CRACKS IN ASPHALT POROUS PAVEMENTS. (2023). Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, 27(4), 448-459. https://doi.org/10.31272/jeasd.27.4.3

Similar Articles

1-10 of 203

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.